Introduction to PhilosophyNotesThis is not a substitute for coming to class Richard Lee
Philosophy 2003 C 001Copyright © 1999, Richard Lee Spring 1999

The Categorical Imperative:
Two Formulations

The Universal Law formulation:

Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law. (P 427a, different translation)
The Persons as Ends formulation:
Act in such a way that you treat humanity whether in your own person or in the person of another, always at the same time as an end and never simply as a means. (P 429b, different translation)

Richard Lee,, last modified: 1 March 1999