Ethics and the Professions Autumn 1998

Second Examination: Questions

[Be sure you are familiar with the format and ground rules for this exam.]

Questions will be referred to by their "names," listed to their left.

"Name"Question
PC-MOD Explain the differences among the various normative models of the professional-client relationship proposed by Michael Bayles.
PC-VEA Robert Veach discusses several models of the doctor-patient relationship. Explain what these are and how they compare with the models discussed by Michael Bayles.
PC-BES Of the normative models of the professional-client relationship put forward by authors we have read, which seems to you best? Why? Why are the others inadequate? Critically discuss.
PC-PAT What is paternalism? Under what conditions, if any, is paternalism justified? Why is it justified under those conditions? Formulate conditions under which some people might think that paternalism is justified but which, in your view, it is not. Why is it not justified under those conditions?
PC-LIB What grounds have been proposed as legitimate reasons for limiting the freedom or liberty of a person? Which grounds are acceptable and which not? That is, under what conditions is it morally legitimate to limit the freedom or liberty of another person? Critically discuss.
R-MORA What are moral rights? How are they to be distinguished from other sorts of rights (or are there no other sorts of rights)? What kinds of moral rights do people have and why? How are rights related to duties? Critically discuss.
R-R&D What is the relationship between moral rights and moral duties? Explain and critically discuss.
R-P&N1 Explain the difference between positive rights and negative rights. How are each related to duties that people have? Explain and critically discuss.
R-LIBY What is a "liberty right?" How do these differ from other sorts of rights? Explain and give examples.
R-TRUM What does it mean to speak of rights as "trumps?" Explain the view that rights are trumps. Explain the alternatives to this view of rights. Give an example of a moral issue involving rights and explain what difference these views of rights would make to that issue.
R-PERS What does Englehardt mean by a "person?" Are there persons who are not human beings? Are there human beings who are not persons? Explain and critically discuss. Is it wrong to kill someone because she is a person or because she is a human being (or for neither reason)? Explain and critically discuss.
R-EDUC Do people have a moral right to (at least a minimal) education? If so, what kind of right is it? If not, what moral rights do people have, and why? Critically discuss.
R-HEAL What rights, if any, do we have to health care? Critically discuss, making sure to take account of the views of Sade, McCullough, and Outka.
R-OUTK Are we all equally susceptible to illness or are there some differences among us in that regard? Does this affect what rights, if any, we have to health care? Explain. Be sure to take into account the views of Outka and McCullough.
R-SADE Explain Dr. Robert Sade's views concerning a right to health care. Does Sade think we have a right to health care? Why or why not? Explain McCullough's criticism of Sade's view. Critically discuss Sade's view.
IC-WHN Under what circumstances must a professional obtain the informed consent of her client before undertaking some action in regard to that client? Critically discuss.
IC-2X Judge Spotswood Robinson III offered two exceptions to the rule of disclosure. Explain what these exceptions are and give examples of their application. Are these reasonable exceptions? Critically discuss.
IC-ISS Explain what moral issues arise with respect to informed consent. Morally speaking, under what circumstances should informed consent be obtained? Under what circumstances is it unnecessary? Explain and critically discuss.
D-LEE What is lying? Explain Lee's account. Explain Ellin's account. How do they differ? Give examples of statements that would be lies on one account but not on the other. Which account seems superior? Why?
D-L&D Is lying any different from other forms of deception? If so, how? If not, why not? Critically discuss.
D-WOR What is Joseph's Ellin's view about which is worse, lying or mere deception (trickery)? Explain and critically discuss.
D-CHIS Chisholm and Feehan give an account of why lying seems worse than other types of intended deception. Explain their account. Are they right? Why or why not? Critically discuss.
D-ELL1 Joseph Ellin gives three arguments for why lying is a greater wrong than trickery. Carefully explain and critically discuss the first of these arguments.
D-ELL2 Joseph Ellin gives three arguments for why lying is a greater wrong than trickery. Carefully explain and critically discuss the second of these arguments.
D-ELL3 Joseph Ellin gives three arguments for why lying is a greater wrong than trickery. Carefully explain and critically discuss the third of these arguments.
D-PROF Explain Joseph Ellin's views concerning the morality of deception and lying according to professional morality. Critically discuss.
D-BOK Sissela Bok wrote "Deceit and violence--these are two forms of deliberate assault on human beings." Explain what she meant by this remark. Is deceit morally wrong? If so, why is it wrong? If not, what is wrong with Bok's arguments that it is wrong? If deceit is sometimes wrong and sometimes not wrong, explain why it is wrong when it is (and not when it is not). Critically discuss.
D-C&B Explain the difference between the views of Joseph Collins and Sissela Bok on whether doctors should be truthful with patients. Which of these views do you believe is more correct? Defend your answer.
D-COLL Explain the the views of Joseph Collins concerning whether doctors should be truthful with patients. How, if at all, do Collins's views differ from those of Joseph Ellin? Is Collins correct? Defend your answer.
D-DEMO Under what circumstances, according to Sissela Bok, is it all right in a democracy for the government to deceive its citizens? Critically discuss.
D-BIG Is it wrong for people in general to make claims that they know to be false? Is it even wrong for people in general to make intentionally misleading statements? Is it wrong for professionals to make false statements to their clients? Is it even wrong for professionals to make intentionally misleading statements to their clients? Is it wrong for professionals to make misleading statements to people who are not their clients? Is it even wrong for professionals to make intentionally misleading statements to people who are not their clients? In all cases answer why or why not. And if the answer is "it depends," say what factors it depends on. In your answer be sure to explain and discuss the views of Joseph Ellin, Joseph Collins, Sissela Bok, and others.


Richard Lee, rlee@comp.uark.edu, last modified: 26 October 1998