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Peter S. Ungar
Paleoanthropology Laboratory and
Neogene Paleoecology Working Group

Department of Anthropology
University of Arkansas
Fayetteville, AR 72701

Research supported by
National Science Foundation
grant #BCS-0315157


Selected Dental Microwear References

  • Ainamo, J.  (1971).  Prenatal occlusal wear in guinea pig molars.  Scand. J. Dent. Res. 79: 69-71.

  • Bax, J.S.& Ungar, P.S.(1999).  Incisor labial surface wear striations in modern humans and their implications for handedness in middle and late Pleistocene hominids. Int. J. Osteoarchaeol. 9,189-198.

  • Bullington, J. (1991). Dental microwear of prehistoric juveniles from the lower Illinois River Valley. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.84, 59-74.

  • Burnell, C.L.; Teaford, M.F. & Glander, K.E. (1994). Dental microwear differs by capture site in live-caught Alouatta from Costa Rica. Am. J. phys. Anthropol. Supplement 18, 62.

  • Butler , P.M. (1952). The milk molars of Perissodactyla, with remarks on molar occlusion. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 121: 777-817.

  • Daegling DJ, Grine FE. (1999). Terrestrial foraging and dental microwear in Papio ursinus. Primates 40:559-572.

  • Danielson, D.R. and Reinhard, K.J. (1998). Human dental microwear caused by calcium oxalate phytoliths in prehistoric diet of the lower Pecos region, Texas . Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 107: 297-304

  • Fine, D. & Craig, G.T. (1981). Buccal surface wear of human premolar and molar teeth: a potential indicator of dietary and social differentiation. J. hum. Evol. 10, 335-344.

  • Godfrey, L.R., Semprebon, G.M., Jungers, W.L., Sutherland, M.R., Simons, E.L., and Solounias, N. (2004). Dental use wear in extinct lemurs: evidence of diet and niche differentiation. J. Hum. Evol. 47: 145-170.

  • Gordon, K.D. (1982). A study of microwear on chimpanzee molars: Implications of dental microwear analysis. Am. J. phys. Anthropol.59, 195-215.

  • Gordon, K.D. (1984). The assessment of jaw movement direction from dental microwear. Am. J. phys. Anthropol. 63, 77-84.

  • Gordon, K.D. (1984). Hominoid dental microwear: complications in the use of microwear analysis to detect diet. J. Dent. Res. 63, 1043-1046.

  • Gordon, K.D. (1984). Orientation of occlusal contacts in the chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes verus, deduced from scanning electron microscopic analysis of dental microwear patterns. Arch. Oral Biol.29, 783-787.

  • Gordon, K.D. (1988). A review of methodology and quantification in dental microwear analysis. Scan. Misrosc.2, 1139-1147.

  • Gordon, K.D. & Walker, A. (1983). Playing 'possom: A microwear experiment. Am. J. phys. Anthropol. 60, 109-112.

  • Grine, F.E. (1977). Analysis of early hominid deciduous molar wear by scanning electron microscopy: a preliminary report. Proc. Elect. Microsc. Soc. S. Afr. 7, 157-158.

  • Grine, F.E. (1977). Postcanine tooth function and jaw movement in the gomphodont cynodont Diademodon (Reptilla; Therapsida). Paleontol. Afr. 20, 123-135.

  • Grine, F.E. (1981). Trophic differences between 'gracile' and 'robust' australopithecines: a scanning electron microscope analysis of occlusal events. S. Afr. J. Sci. 77, 203-230.

  • Grine, F.E. (1984). Deciduous molar microwear of South African australopithecines. In (DJ Chivers, BA Wood and A Bilsborough, Ed) Food Acquisition and Processing in Primates, pp. 525-534. New York: Plenum.

  • Grine, F.E. (1986). Dental evidence for dietary differences in Australopithecus and Paranthropus. J. hum. Evol.15, 783-822.

  • Grine, F.E. (1987). Quantitative analysis of occlusal microwear in Australopithecus and Paranthropus. Scan. Microsc. 1, 647-656.

  • Grine, F.E. & Kay, R.F. (1988). Early hominid diets from quantitative image analysis of dental microwear. Nature.333, 765-768.

  • Harmon, A.M. & Rose, J.C. (1988). The role of dental microwear analysis in the reconstruction of prehistoric diet. In (BV Kennedy and GM Le Moine, Ed) Diet and Subsistence: Current Archaeological Perspectives., pp. 267-272. Calgary, Alberta: Archaeological Association of the University of Calgary.

  • Hojo, T. (1989). Dietary differences and microwear on the teeth of Late Stone Age and early modern people from western Japan. Scan. Microsc. 3, 623-628.

  • Hojo, T. (1991). Scanning electron microscopic analysis of dental wear on the heavily worn second molars of the wild Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata). Scan. Microsc. 5, 505-508.

  • Kay, R.F. and Grine, F.E. (1989). Tooth morphology, wear and diet in Australopithecus and Paranthropus from southern Africa . In: The Evolutionary History of the Robust Australopithecines. New York : Aldine de Gryter. pp. 427-444.

  • Kelley, J. (1990). Incisor microwear and diet in three species of Colobus. Fol. Primatol. 55, 73-84

  • King, T., Aiello, L.C., Andrews, P., 1999a. Dental microwear of Griphopithecus alpani. J. Hum. Evol. 36, 3-31.

  • King, T., Andrews, P., Boz, B., 1999b. Effect of taphonomic processes on dental microwear. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 108, 359-373.

  • Krause, D.W. (1982). Jaw movement, dental function, and diet in the Paleocene multituberculate Ptilodus. Paleobiol. 8, 265-281.

  • Lalueza Fox, C. (1992). Dental striation pattern in Andamanese and Veddahs from skulls collections of the British Museum . Man in India 72: 377-384.

  • Lalueza Fox, C., and Pérez-Pérez, A. (1993). The diet of the Neanderthal child Gibralter 2 (Devils’ Tower) through the study of the vestibular striation pattern. J. Hum. Evol. 24: 29-41.

  • Lalueza Fox, C., Pérez-Pérez, A., and Juan, J. (1994). Dietary information through the examination of plant phytoliths on the enamel surface of human dentition. J. Archaeol. Sci. 21: 29-34.

  • Lalueza C, Pérez-Pérez A, Turbon D. 1996. Dietary inferences through buccal microwear analysis of middle and upper Pleistocene human fossils. Am J Phys Anthropol 100:367-387.

  • Lucas, P.W. & Teaford, M.F. (1994). Functional morphology of colobine teeth. In (AG Davies and JF Oates, Ed) Colobine monkeys: their ecology, behaviour and evolution., pp. 173-203. Cambridge: Cambridge University.

  • Lucas, P. W. (2004). Dental Functional Morphology:  How Teeth Work. Cambridge University Press, New York .

  • Lucas, P.W. and Teaford, M.F. (1995).  Significance of silica in leaves to long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Folia Primatol. 64: 30-36.

  • Mannerberg, F. (1960).  Appearance of tooth surface as observed in shadowed replicas. Odontol. Revy 11(Suppl. 6): 114 pp.

  • Molleson, T. and Jones, K. (1991). Dental evidence for dietary change at Abu Hureyra. J. Archaeol. Sci. 18: 525-539.

  • Molleson, T., Jones, K., and Jones, S. (1993). Dietary change and the effects of food preparation on microwear patterns in the Late Neolithic of Abu Hureyra, northern Syria . J. Hum. Evol. 24: 455-468.

  • Morel, A., Albuisson, and Woda, A. (1991). A study of human jaw movements deduced from scratches on occlusal wear facets. Arch. Oral Biol. 36: 195-202.

  • Noble, V.E. and Teaford, M.F.  (1995) Dental microwear in Caucasian American Homo sapiens: preliminary results. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. Suppl. 20: 162.

  • Oliveira, E.V. (2001). Micro-desgaste dentário em alguns Dasypodidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra). Acta Biologica Leopoldensia 23: 83-91.

  • Pastor, R.F. (1992). Dietary adaptations and dental microwear in Mesolithic and Chalcolithic South Asia. J. Hum. Ecol. Sp. Issue. 2, 215-228.

  • Pastor, R.F. (1993). Dental Microwear among Prehistoric Inhabitants of the Indian Subcontinent: A Quantitative and Comparative Analysis. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Oregon.

  • Pastor, R.F. & Johnson, T.L. (1992). Dental microwear and attrition. In (KAR Kennedy, Ed) Human Skeletal Remains from Mahadaha: A Gangetic Mesolithic Site., pp. 271-304. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University.

  • Pérez-Pérez, A., Lalueza, C. and Turbón, D. (1994). Intraindividual and intragroup variability of buccal tooth striation pattern. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 94: 175-187.

  • Pérez-Pérez, A., Bermúdez de Castro, J.M., Arsuaga, J.L. (1999). Nonocclusal dental microwear analysis of 300,000-year-old Homo heidelbergensis teeth fromSima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain ). Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 108: 433-457.

  • Pérez-Pérez, A., Espurz, V., Bermúdez de Castro, J.M., de Lumley, M.A., and Turbón, D. (2003). Non-occlusal dental microwear variability in a sample of Middle and Late Pleistocene human populations from Europe and the Near East . J. Hum. Evol. 44: 497-513.

  • Peters, C.R. (1982). Electron-optical microscopic study of incipient dental microdamage from experimental seed and bone crushing. Am. J. phys. Anthropol. 57, 283-301.

  • Puech, P.-F. (1976). Recherche sur le mode d'alimentation des hommes du Paleolithique par l'etude microscopique des couronnes dentaires. In (H de Lumley, Ed) La Prehistoire Francaise, pp. 709-710. Paris: C.N.R.S.

  • Puech, P.-F. (1981). Tooth wear in La Ferrasie Man. Curr. Anthropol. 22, Puech, P.-F. (1982). L'usure dentaire de l'homme de tautavel. Ed) L'Homo erectus et la place de l'homme de Tautavel parmi les hominides fossiles., pp. 249-275. Nice: Colloque International du C.N.R.S.

  • Puech, P.-F. (1984). Acidic food choice in Homo habilis at Olduvai. Curr. Anthropol. 25, 349-350.

  • Puech, P.-F. (1986). Australopithecus afarensis Garusi 1, diversite et specialisation des premiers Hominides d'apres les caracteres maxillo-dentaires. C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) Ser. II. Comptes Rendu de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris. Serie II. 303, 1819-1824.

  • Puech, P.-F. (1986). Tooth microwear in Homo habilis at Olduvai. Mem. Mus. Histl. Natur. Paris (Ser. C.).53, 399-414.

  • Puech, P.-F. & Albertini, H. (1983). Usure des dents chez Australopithecus afarensis: examen au microscope du complexe canine superieure/premiere premolaire inferieure. C. R. Acad. Sci (Paris) . 296, 1817-1822.

  • Puech, P.-F. & Albertini, H. (1984). Dental microwear and mechanisms in early hominids from Laetoli and Hadar. Am. J. phys. Anthropol. 65, 87-91.

  • Puech, P.-F.; Albertini, H. & Serratrice, C. (1983). Tooth microwear and dietary patterns in early hominids from Laetoli, Hadar, and Olduvai. J. hum. Evol. 12, 721-729.

  • Puech, P.-F.; Ciafarani, F.; Markiziu, A. & Gebalia, I. (1990). Fluoride content and microwear of teeth in the Peninj Australopithecus. In (S Olsen, Ed) Scanning Electron Microscopy in Archaeology. B.A.R. Series.

  • Puech, P.-F.; Ciafarani, F. & Roth, H. (1986). Reconstruction of the maxillary dental archadeo f Garusi hominid I. J. hum. Evol. 15, 325-332.

  • Puech, P.-F.; Cianfarani, F. & Albertini, H. (1986). Dental microwear features as an indicator for plant food in early hominids: a preliminary study of enamel. Hum. Evol. 1, 507-515.

  • Puech, P.-F.; Prone, A. & Albertini, H. (1981). Reproduction experimentale des processus d'alteration de la surface dentaire par friction non abrasive et non adhesive: application a l'etude de l'alimentation de l'Homme fossile. C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) Ser. II. 293, 729-734.

  • Puech, P.-F.; Prone, A. & Kraatz, R. (1980). Microscpie de l'usure dentaire chez l'Homme fossile: bol alimentaire et environnement. C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) Ser. D. 290, 1413-1416.

  • Puech, P.-F.; Prone, A.; Roth, H. & Cianfarani, F. (1985). Reproduction experimentale de processus d'usure des surfaces dentaires des Hominides fossils: consequences morphoscopiques et exoscopics avec application a l'Hominide I de Garusi. C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) Ser. 2. 301, 59-64.

  • Puech, P.-F.; Serratrice, C. & Leek, F.F. (1983). Tooth wear as observed in ancient Egyptian skulls. J. hum. Evol. 12, 617-629.

  • Puech, P.F. (1979). The diet of early man: evidence from abrasion of teeth and tools. Curr. Anthropol. 20, 590-592.

  • Purnell, M.A. (1995). Microwear in conodont elements and macrophagy in the first vertebrates. Nature 374: 798-800.

  • Radlanski R.J., Jäger A. (1989). Zur mikromorphologie der approximalen Kontaktflächen und der okklusalen Schliffacetten menschlicher Zähne. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 44:196-197.

  • Rafferty, K.L., Teaford, M.F., Jungers, W.L., 2002. Molar microwear of subfossil lemurs: improving the resolution of dietary inferences. J. Hum. Evol. 43, 645-657.

  • Rensberger, J.M. (1978). Scanning electron microscopy of wear and occlusal events in some small herbivores. In: Development, Function and Evolution of Teeth.  P.M. Butler and K.A. Joysey, eds. New York : Academic Press, pp. 415-438.

  • Robson, S.K. & Young, W.G. (1990). A comparison of tooth microwear between an extinct marsupial predator, the Tasmanian tiger Thylacinus cynocephalus (Thylacinidae) and an extant scavenger, the Tasmanian devil Sarcophilus harrisii (Dasyuridae: Marsupialia). Aust. J. Zool. 37, 575-589.

  • Rose, J.C. & Ungar, P.S. (1998) Gross dental wear and dental microwear in historical perspective. In Alt, K.W.; Rosing, F.W.; Teschler-Nicola, M. (Eds) DENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY: FUNDAMENTALS, LIMITS, PROSPECTS. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer, pp. 349-386. 

  • Rose, J.J. (1983). A replication technique for scanning electron microscopy: Applications for anthropologists. Am. J. phys. Anthropol. 62, 255-261.

  • Rose, K.D.; Walker, A. & Jacobs, L. (1981). Function of the mandibular tooth comb in living and extinct mammals. Nature. 289, 583-585.

  • Ryan, A.S. (1979).  Wear striation direction on primate teeth: A scanning electron microscope examination. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 50: 155-168.

  • Ryan, A.S. (1980). Anterior Dental Microwear in Hominoid Evolution: Comparisons with Human and Nonhuman Primates. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Michigan.

  • Ryan, A.S. (1981). Anterior dental microwear and its relationship to diet and feeding behavior in three African primates (Pan troglodytes troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla gorilla, and Papio hamadryas). Primates. 22, 533-550.

  • Ryan, A.S. & Johanson, D.C. (1989). Anterior dental microwear in Australopithecus afarensis. J. hum. Evol.18, 235-268.

  • Schmidt, C.W. (1998) Dietary Reconstruction Among Prehistoric Humans from Indiana: An Analysis of Dental Macrowear, Dental Pathology, and Dental Microwear. Ph.D. Dissertation, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.

  • Schmidt CW. 2001. Dental microwear evidence for a dietary shift between two nonmaize-reliant prehistoric human populations from Indiana .  Am J Phys Anthropol 114:139-145.

  • Schubert, B.W. and Ungar, P.S. (2005). Wear facets and enamel spalling in tyrannosaurid dinosaurs. Acta Palaeontol. Polonica 50: 93-99.

  • Semprebon, G.M., Godfrey, L.R., Solounias, N., Sutherland, M.R., and Jungers, W.L. (2004).  Can low-magnification stereomicroscopy reveal diet? J. Hum. Evol. 47: 115-144.

  • Shkurkin, G.V., Almquist, A.J., Pfeihofer, A.A., and Stoddard, E.L. (1975). Scanning electron microscopy of dentition: methodology and ultrastructural morphology of tooth wear. J. Dent. Res. 54: 402-406.

  • Silcox, M.T. and Teaford, M.F.  (2002)  The diet of worms: an analysis of mole dental microwear and its relevance to dietary inference in primates and other mammals.  J. Mammal.  83: 804-814.

  • Solounias, N. & Dawson-Saunders, B. (1988). Dietary adaptations and paleoecology of the late Miocene ruminants from Pikermi and Samos in Greece. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 65, 149-172.

  • Soulounias, N.; Fortelius, M. & Freeman, P. (1994). Trace element and isotopic aspects of predator-prey relationships in terrestrial foodwebs. . Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimat. Palaeoecol. 107, 243-255.

  • Solounias, N. and Hayek, L.C. (1993). New methods of tooth microwear analysis and application to dietary determination of two extinct antelopes. J. Zool. 229: 421-445.

  • Solounias, N. and Moelleken, S.M.C. (1992). Tooth microwear analyses of Eotragus sansaniensis (Mammalia: Ruminantia), one of the oldest known bovids. J. Vert. Paleontol. 12: 113-121.

  • Strait, S.G. (1993). Molar microwear in extant small-bodied faunivorous mammals: An analysis of feature

  • Teaford, M.D. & Glander, K.E. (1991). Dental microwear in live, wild-trapped Alouatta palliata from Costa Rica. Am. J. phys. Anthropol. 85, 313-319.

  • Teaford, M.F. (1983). Functional morphology of the underbite in two species of langurs. J. Dent. Res. 62(A), 183.

  • Teaford, M.F. (1985). Molar microwear and diet in the genus Cebus. Am. J. phys. Anthropol. 66, 363-370.

  • Teaford, M.F. (1986). Dental microwear and diet in two species of Colobus. In (J Else and P Lee, Ed) Proceedings of the tenth annual international primatological confernce. Volume 2: Primate Ecology and Conservation., pp. 63-66. Cambridge: Cambridge University.

  • Teaford, M.F. (1988). A review of dental microwear and diet in modern mammals. Scan. Microsc. 2, 1149-1166.

  • Teaford, M.F. (1988). Scanning electron microscope diagnosis of wear patterns versus artifacts on fossil teeth. Scan. Microsc. 2, 1167-1175.

  • Teaford, M.F. (1991). Dental microwear: what can it tell us about diet and dental function? In (MA Kelley and CS Larsen, Ed) Advances in Dental Anthropology., pp. 341-356. New York: Alan R. Liss.

  • Teaford, M.F. (1993). Dental microwear and diet in extant and extinct Theropithecus: preliminary analyses. In (NG Jablonski, Ed) Theropithecus: the Life and Death of a Primate Genus., pp. 331-349. Cambridge: Cambridge University.

  • Teaford, M.F. (1994). Dental microwear and dental function. Evol. Anthropol. 3, 17-30.

  • Teaford, M.F. (2002). Dental enamel microwear analysis. In Foraging, Farming and Coastal Biocultural Adaptation in Late Prehistoric North Carolina . D.L. Hutchinson, ed.  Gainesville , Florida: University Press of Florida , pp. 169-177.

  • Teaford, M.F. & Byrd, K.E. (1989). Differences in tooth wear as an indicator of changes in jaw movement in the guinea pig Cavia porcellus. Arch. Oral. Biol. 34, 929-936.

  • Teaford, M.F., Glander, K.E., 1991. Dental microwear in live, wild-trapped Alouatta palliata from Costa Rica . Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 85, 313-319.

  • Teaford, M.F. and Glander, K.E.  (1996)  Dental microwear and diet in a wild population of mantled howlers (Alouatta palliata).  In:  Adaptive Radiations of Neotropical Primates.  M. Norconk, A. Rosenberger, and P. Garber, eds.  New York : Plenum Press, pp. 433-449.

  • Teaford, M.F., Larsen, C.S., Pastor, R.F., and Noble, V.E. (2001). Pits and scratches: microscopic evidence of tooth use and masticatory behavior in La Florida . In: Larsen CS, editor. Bioarchaeology of Spanish Florida : The Impact of Colonialism. Gainesville : University Press of Florida . p 82-112.

  • Teaford, M.F. and Lytle, J.D.  (1996). Diet-induced changes in rates of human tooth microwear: a case study involving stone-ground maize. Am J Phys Anthropol 100:143-147.

  • Teaford, M.F. & Oyen, O.J. (1989). Differences in rate of molar wear between monkeys raised on different diets. J. Dent. Res. 68, 1513-1518.

  • Teaford, M.F. & Oyen, O.J. (1989). In vivo and in vitro turnover in dental microwear. Am. J. phys. Anthropol. 80, 447-460.

  • Teaford, M.F. & Oyen, O.J. (1989). Live primates and dental replication: New problems and new techniques. Am. J. phys. Anthropol. 80, 73-81.

  • Teaford, M.F.; Pastor, R.F.; Glander, K.E. & Ungar, P.S. (1994). Dental microwear and diet: Costa Rican Alouatta revisited. Am. J. phys. Anthropol. Supplement 18, 194.

  • Teaford, M.F. & Robinson, J.G. (1989). Seasonal or ecological zone differences in diet and molar microwear in Cebus nigrivittatus. Am. J. phys. Anthropol.80, 391-401.

  • Teaford, M.F. & Runestad, J.A. (1992). Dental microwear and diet in Venezuelan primates. Am. J. phys. Anthropol. 88, 347-364.

  • Teaford, M.F. & Tylenda, C.A. (1991). A new approach to the study of tooth wear. J. Dent. Res. 70, 204-207.

  • Teaford, M.F. and Ungar, P.S. (2000).  Diet and the evolution of the earliest human ancestors.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 97: 13506-13511.

  • Teaford, M.F. & Walker, A. (1983). Dental microwear in adult and still-born guinea pigs. Arch. Oral Biol. 28, 1077-1081.

  • Teaford, M.F. & Walker, A. (1983). Prenatal jaw movements in the guinea pig, Cavia porcellus, evidence from patterns of tooth wear. J. Mammal. 64, 534-536.

  • Teaford, M.F. & Walker, A.C. (1984). Quantitative differences in dental microwear between primate species with different diets and a comment on the presumed diet of Sivapithecus. Am. J. phys. Anthropol. 64, 191-200.

  • Ungar, P.S. (1990). Incisor microwear and feeding behavior in Alouatta seniculus and Cebus olivaceus. Am. J. Primatol. 20, 43-50.

  • Ungar, P.S. (1992). Dental evidence for diet in primates. Anthropol. Kozl. 34, 141-155.

  • Ungar, P.S. (1992). Incisor microwear and feeding behavior of four Sumatran anthropoids. Ph.D. Dissertation. State University of New York at Stony Brook.

  • Ungar, P.S. (1994). Incisor microwear of Sumatran anthropoid primates. Am. J. phys. Anthropol. 94, 339-363.

  • Ungar, P.S. (1994). Patterns of ingestive behavior and anterior tooth use differences in sympatric anthropoid primates. Am. J. phys. Anthropol. 95, 197-219.

  • Ungar, P.S. (1995). Fruit preferences of four sympatric primate species at Ketambe, northern Sumatra, Indonesia. Int. J. Primatol.16, 221-245.

  • Ungar, P.S. (1995). A semiautomated image analysis procedure for the quantification of dental microwear II. Scanning. 17, 57-59.

  • Ungar, P.S. (1996). Dental microwear of European Miocene catarrhines: Evidence for diets and tooth use. J. hum. Evol. 31, 355-366.

  • Ungar, P.S. (1998). Dental allometry, morphology and wear as evidence for diet in fossil primates. Evol. Anthropol., 6:205-217.

  • Ungar, P.S., Brown , C.A., Bergstrom, T.S., and Walker, A. (2003). Quantification of dental microwear by tandem scanning confocal microscopy and scale-sensitive fractal analyses.  Scanning 25: 185-193.

  • Ungar, P.S. & Grine, F.E. (1991). Incisor size and wear in Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus. J. hum. Evol. 20, 313-340.

  • Ungar, P.S.; Simons, J.-C. & Cooper, J.W. (1991). A semiautomated image analysis procedure for the quantification of dental microwear. Scanning. 13, 31-36.

  • Ungar, P.S.; Spencer, M.A. (1999) Incisor microwear, diet and tooth use in three Amerindian populations. Am. J. phys. Anthropol. 109:387-396.

  • Ungar, P.S. & Teaford (1996). A preliminary examination of non-occlusal dental microwear in anthropoids: implications for the study of fossil primates. Am. J. phys. Anthropol. 100:101-113.

  • Ungar, P.S.; Teaford, M.F.; Glander, K.E. & Pastor, R.F. (1995). Dust accumulation in the canopy: a potential cause of dental microwear in primates. Am. J. phys. Anthropol. 97:93-99.

  • Ungar, P.S., Teaford, M.F., Kay, R.F., 2004. Molar microwear and shearing crest development in Miocene catarrhines. Anthrop 42, 21-35.

  • Van Valkenburgh, B.; Teaford, M.F. & Walker, A. (1990). Molar microwear and diet in large carnivores. J. Zool. 22, 319-340.

  • Walker , A., Hoeck, H.N., and Perez, L. (1978). Microwear of mammalian teeth as an indicator of diet. Science 201: 908-910.

  • Walker , P.L. (1976). Wear striations on the incisors of cercopithecoid monkeys as an index of diet and habitat preference. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 45: 299-308.

  • Young, W.G.; Brennan, K.P. & Marshall, R.I. (1990). Occlusal movements of the Brushtail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula, from microwear on the teeth. Aust. J. Zool. 38, 41-51.

  • Young, W.G. & Marty, T.M. (1986). Wear and microwear on the teeth of a moose (Alces alces) population in Manitoba, Canada. Can. J. Zool. 64, 2467-2479.

  • Young, W.G. & Robson, S.K. (1987). Jaw movements from microwear on the molar teeth of the koala Phascolarctos cinereus. J. Zool., Lond. 213, 51-61.

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