Humanistic-Existential Perspective

 

Emerged in reaction to psychoanalytic perspective

·                    Pessimistic determinism– behavior controlled by unconscious forces

·                    Psychological health equated with adjustment to society

 

HE Perspective emphasized the study of the “whole” person and a focus on human potential

 

Assumptions of the H-E Perspective

1.         Focus on the self and self’s potential

*          personal growth as a goal

 

2.         Promise of human potential

*          psychological change is possible

*          Individuals’ construct their realities

*          Self-actualization

 

3.         Importance of authenticity, freedom, and responsibility

 

*          Self-awareness affords the ability to make choices and control our destinies

 

Humanistic-Existential Treatment

*          Phenomenological approach: listening with maximum empathy to everything the patient communicates

 

·                    Therapist as facilitator, not leader

 

 

Humanistic-Existential Perspective

Carl Rogers:

·                    Behavior is motivated by self-actualization

·                    counteracting conditions of worth: “I must ____ to be deserving of love.”

·                    Ideal vs. Actual Self

 

client-centered therapy

·                    Empathy

·                    Unconditional Positive Regard

·                    Genuineness

 

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

 

Existential Psychology

·                    Difficulty living authentically in the modern world

o       Loss of values and sense of personal responsibility

o        Conformity vs. active choice

o       Conformity leads to denial of the authentic self

 

·                    Alienation= sense of meaninglessness and terror over the nothingness of death

 

·                    Psychological Adaptivenss=

o       Acceptance of emotion

o       Embracing the authentic self

o       Recognizing active choice in daily living

 

Interpersonal Perspective

·                    A cluster of approaches emphasizing interactions among people

o       Sullivan as first systematic theorist

§         Emphasized chumship

§         Self-concept emerges from interpersonal relations

 

·                    IPT: interpersonal therapy

o       Marital difficulty, lack of social support, etc. as contributors to disorders

§         Klerman– approach to depression