Glossary of Latin Words
Found in Records and Other English Manuscripts, But
Not Occurring in Classical Authors.

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abaciscus: a small square tablet.

abactor: a cattle lifter, who steals sheep or cattle in herds, not singly.

abacus: a calculating board; and hence, arithmetic; a sideboard; a cupboard.

abandonnare: to permit or forbid by proclamation.

abandonum, abandum: anything sequestered, proscribed, pledged, or abandoned.

abarnare: to prove, legally, a secret crime.

abastardare: to bastardize.

abaso: an infirmary.

abatamentum: an entry by interposition.

abatare: to beat down; to defeat a writ or appeal; to enter into property void by death of the possessor before the heir takes possession.

abatis: an officer who distributes corn, an avener or hostler; a ration of corn.

abator: a person who by interposition enters into property.

abatudus: diminished, esp. clipped, as money.

abbas: an abbot.

abbatatus: the office of abbot.

abbatia, abbathia: an abbey; the office of abbot.

abbatis. See abatis.

abbatissa: an abbess.

abbatizare: to be abbot.

abbayum: a milldam.

abbettamentum: abetment.

abbettare, abettare: to abet; to instigate.

abbettator: an abbettor.

abbettum: abetment.

abbottare: to abut, or bound.

abbreviamentum: an abridgement.

abbreviare: to abridge.

abbrocamentum: abbrochment, or forestalling a market or fair.

abbrocator: a forestaller; a broker.

abbuttare: to abut.

abcariare: to carry away.

abdicare: to renounce an office before the term of service has expired.

abditorium: a chest for keeping plate or relics.

abecedarium: an alphabet.

abecedarius: a scholar learning to read.

abecula: the back of a sword or knife.

aberemurdrum: manifest murder.

abettare, &c. See abbettare, &c.

abeyantia: abeyance. Property is in abeyance when it is in the expectation, in the intendment of the law, not in actual possession.

abgatoria, abgetorium: the alphabet; rudiments of a science.

abhaeres: a future holder of property, not the next heir.

abiaticus: a nephew (aviaticus).

abigevus: a cattle stealer. See abactor.

abjectire: to be non-suited; to make default.

abjudicare: to take away by judicial sentence.

abjurare: to renounce the realm for ever.

ablactatus: weaned.

ablatum: a wafer. O.E. obley (oblata).

abra: a maidservant.

abrenunciatio: renunciation.

abrocagium: brokerage.

abrocarius: a broker.

abrogabilis: fit to be repealed.

absconcius: a casket.

absconsa: a dark lantern; a sconce.

absis: an apse; a church porch.

absolutionis dies: Maundy Thursday.

absoniare: to shun, or avoid.

abutare. See abbuttare.

acatum. See accatum.

accalvaster: bald in front.

accannellare: to chamfer.

accapitare, accaptare: to pay a relief.

accapitis, accapitum, accaptamentum: a relief.

accatum: an acquisition.

accearium: steel.

accendile: a lamp or candle wick.

acceptilatio: discharge, acquitance.

acceptor: a hawk.

acceptor de arbore: a brancher.

acceptor de pertica: a hawk off the perch.

acceptor domitus: a reclaimed hawk.

acceptor intra clavem repositus: a hawk in the mew.

acceptor mutatus: a mewed hawk.

acceptoricius canis: a spaniel used for falconry.

accessorius: guilty of a felonious offence, non principally, but by participation.

accidia: sloth.

accidinetum: gorse.

acciptrarius: a falconer.

accitulium: cuckoo sorrel.

acclaudicare: to lame, esp. a horse, with bad shoeing.

accola: a colonist; a cultivator of land where he was not born.

accompliamentum: accomplishment.

accrescendi jus: right of increase.

acedia: melancholy.

acega: a woodcock (scolopax rusticola).

acellarius: "a spenser," cellarer.

acentus: increase.

acerrum, acerum: steel.

aceta: a snipe, or woodcock.

achaptare. See accapitare.

achatum: purchase, bargain.

achersetus: a measure of corn, conjectured to be a quarter.

achevare: to finish.

acitula: henbane.

acolabium: a farm, a tenement.

acoluthus: an acolyte. O.E. a colet.

acopatus. See acupatus.

acordum: accord; assent.

acquestra: acquisition.

acquietantia: a discharge in writing, of money paid or debt due; quittance.

acquietare: to pay; to free or discharge.

acquirere, adquirere: to purchase; to acquit.

acra: an acre of land; a judicial combat, holm gang.

acra anglicana: 20 English acres in the reign of Richard I are said to be equal to 22 acres.

acroisia: blindness. For aorisia.

actachiare. See attachiare.

actilia: armour and weapons; gear. See atilium.

actio: a legal demand of a right.

actionare: to prosecute.

acto: a haqueton, a padded or quilted tunic worn under the mail.

actor: a proctor or advocate in civil courts.

actor dominicus: the bailiff or attorney of a lord.

actor ecclesiae: the advocate or pleading patron of a church.

actor villae: the steward or head bailiff of a town or village.

actornatus. See attornatus.

actuarius: the clerk who registers the acts of convocation.

acuarium: a needle case.

acucio: sharpening.

aculus, acula: an aglet, a metal tag.

acupatus: charged with (adculpatus).

acuperium: a whetstone.

acupictor: an embroiderer.

acusile: a trinket.

acustumabilis, acustumatus: liable to custom.

acustumare: to exact custom; to exempt from custom.

acuta: ague.

acutecula: a steel; a hone.

ad. Sometimes used for "at" not "to" a place.

adalingus: an etheling.

adaquare: to water (cattle); to drown.

adaquarium: a watering place.

adasia: a ewe.

adbreviare: to abridge.

adcredulitare: to purge oneself of an accusation by oath.

addictio: used for additio.

additio: a title setting forth a person's estate, degree, trade, &c.

addresciare, addressare: to redress; to restore; to make amends for; to render account of.

adirare: to lose.

adiratus: a compensation for goods lost or stolen.

adjacentia: neighbourhood; a thing near other.

adjectire: to cite.

adjornamentum, adjurnamentum: adjournment, putting off to another day or place.

adjornare: to adjourn.

adjudicatio: pronouncing a judgment or decree.

adjurnare: to adjourn.

adlegiare: to purge oneself of a crime by oath. (Fr. aleier.)

admensuratio: admeasurement, a writ for remedy against persons who usurp more than their share.

adminiculum, adminiculatio: aid, support.

admiraldus: an admiral.

admiraldus: sometimes used for emeraldus.

admiralis: an admiral.

admiralitas: admiralty.

admiralius, admirallus: an admiral.

admiravisus: an emir vizier.

admissionalis: an usher.

admissivus: an usher.

admonitor: a watch dog, "a wappe."

adnichilare, adnullare: to annul.

adquietare. See acquietare.

adramire. See arramire.

adrectare: to do right; to make amends.

adresciare. See addresciare.

adsecurare. See assecurare.

adulterinus: unlawful, esp. of castles and guilds.

adunare: to collect.

aduncare: to draw with a hook.

advallacio anguillarum: eelbucks.

advanciamentum: advancement.

advantagium: advantage; the right of the lord to redeem a fief removed by the vassal from his lordship.

adventale: a ventail or visor.

adventare: to arrive.

adventura: an adventure, or venture.

adventurare: to adventure, or venture.

adventurarius: an adventurer.

adventus: casual profit.

adversaria: memoranda.

advisamentum: advice; consideration.

advisare: to advise.

advocare: to advow; to vouch; to justify an act done; to avow, i.e. in boroughs, to falsely allege that goods belong to a freeman so as to evade duty.

advocaria: avowry; the justification of having taken a distress, when the party sues forth a replevin.

advocatia: an advowson.

advocatio: advowson, the right of presentation to an ecclesiastical benefice; allegation of protection or authority.

advocator: a voucher; a pleader.

advocatus: a counsellor or pleader; patron of a church, avowee, advowee, vouchee; protector of a community.

aedituus: a verger, a keeper of relics.

Aegyptiacus, Aegyptius: a gypsy.

aeraria, aeria: an eyry, a nest, usually of hawks.

aerarius: nesting

aereus, aerius: sky blue.

aericius canis. See herecius.

aerrarius. See aerarius.

aesnescia. See esnecia.

affadilla: a daffodil.

affeagium. See affidagium.

afferamentum: affeerment, assessment.

afferare: to assess a fine.

afferator: an affeerer, a person who assesses fines in courts leet and courts baron.

affeteiare: to break or train hounds or hawks.

affeyteiare. See affeteiare.

affidagium: assurance; safety.

affidare: to certify; to swear fealty; to affiance; a term used at the game of tables.

affidatio: an oath.

affidatus, affidus: one who has pledged his faith to another.

affilare: to put on a file with.

affilatorium: a steel, a hone.

affina: a workshop.

affinare: to fine (gold); to finish.

affirmare: to let to farm.

affodillus: a daffodil.

afforare: to appraise.

afforciamentum: a fortress; compulsion; the coercive power of a Court.

afforciare: to increase or make stronger; to compel.

afforciatus: pure, unadulterated. Applied to cloth and other goods.

afforestare: to turn land into forest.

affra. See affrus.

affraia: an affray.

affraiare: to frighten.

affrectamentum, affretamentum: freight.

affrectare, affretare: to freight.

affriare: to frighten.

affrus: an ox or horse for farm work, usually a horse.

affuramentum. See afferamentum.

agalauda: a plover, probably a pewit.

agalma: an image on a seal.

agaseus: a gazehound.

agellarius: a hayward; a herdward.

agellus: a hamlet.

agenda: business; the office of the Mass or other service; a priest's daily office.

agenfrida: a lord or owner.

agerarius: a farmer's dog.

aggreare se: to agree.

agillarius: a hayward or herdward; a keeper of cattle on a common.

agisamentum: a masquerade.

agistamentum: right of pasturage; the sum paid for this right; assignment of it.

agistare: to assign pasturage for cattle, esp. in a forest.

agistatae terrae: lands whose owners are bound to keep up sea walls.

agistator: an agister or gyst taker, an officer who assigns the pasturage in a forest.

agistiamentum. See agistamentum.

agitatio animalium in foresta: the drift or view of beasts in the forest.

agna: a gold coin, 14th cent.

agnatio: lambing.

agnellatio, agnilatio: lambing.

Agnus Dei: an oval piece of white wax, stamped with the figure of a lamb, and consecrated.

agontea: a champion (agonista).

agreamentum: agreement.

agreare se: to agree.

agredula: a titmouse.

agri: arable land in the common fields.

aimellatus: enamelled.

ainescia: the right of the eldest. See esnecia.

aira: an eyrie, the nest of an eagle, a falcon, or a swan.

aisiamentum, aisimentum: liberty of passage; easement.

aisnecca: a ship. (A.S. snace.)

aisya: convenience.

akermannus: a small farmer. (A.S. aecer mon.) Their holding was less than that of the virgatarii, but from comparison of rent must have been more than an acre.

aketonum: a haqueton, a gambeson, a padded or quilted tunic.

ala: the aisle of a church.

alabastarius: a crossbowman (arcubalistarius).

alabrum: a reel.

alamandina: a stone coloured like a garnet.

alanerarius: a keeper of dogs (alans) or hawks (lanners).

alanus: a large hound.

alatera, alatoria, alatorium, alatura: a covered way or walk; a piazza.

alaudarius: a hobby hawk (falco subbuteo).

alba: an alb, a long white tight-sleeved vestment; dawn.

alba firma: a yearly rent payable to the chief lord of the hundred in white money, i.e. silver; white rent, blanch farm.

Albae: the weeks after Easter and Whitsuntide.

albatorium: southernwood.

albergata: the right of lodging in a vassal's house; money paid in lieu thereof.

albergellum, albergio: a habergeon, a tunic of mail shorter than a hauberk.

albesteria: a loophole for shooting through.

albesterius: a crossbowman.

albinus: a foreigner. (O.E. a comeling.)

alblasta: a crossbow (arcubalista).

alblastarius: a crossbowman. See arcubalistarius.

aldermannus: an alderman.

aldermanria: a district under the jurisdiction of an alderman.

alea: a passage, an alley.

alebrodium: a warm drink; broth; caudle.

alecenarium: a lanner (falco lanarius).

alecia (sing.): herrings (clupea harengus).

alecium, alectum: a herring, herrings. On the Continent the word included sardines and anchovies, but probably not in England.

aleium: alloy.

aleptes: a chamberlain.

alficus: a leper.

alfinus: a bishop, at chess.

alfita: flour. Alfita Herbarum is the title of a book.

algorismus: arithmetic.

aliblasterius: a worker in alabaster.

alices: contortions.

alietus: a hobby (falco subbuteo).

aliquilitas: essence.

aliteum: a crime.

alkamia: alcamyne, a mixed metal.

alkanea: alcanet, Spanish bugloss.

alkemonia: alchemy.

allativus: bringing.

allaya, allaia: alloy.

allecia. See alecia.

allectium, allectum. See alecium.

allegiantia: allegiance.

allegiare: to defend or justify by course of law.

alleviare: to levy or pay a fine.

allocabilis: allowable.

allocare: to allow.

allocatio: allowance; award.

allocatus: a proctor.

allodium. See alodium.

allorium. See alura.

allosa: a shad. See alosa.

allota, alluta: cork; cordwain leather.

allottare: to allot.

allox: a toe.

allucium. See allota.

alluminare: to illuminate, to decorate books with colour.

alluminator: a limner, an illuminator.

allutarius. See alutarius.

almaria, almerium: a cupboard; an aumbry. See armaria.

almariolum: a little cupboard.

almicia, almicium. See almucia, amictus.

almonaria: an almonry.

almonarium: a cupboard; an ambrey.

almonarius: an almoner.

almonera, almoneria: an almonry; a pouch or purse from which alms were given.

almucia, almucium: an amess or amuse, a cloth or fur hood worn by canons and monks.

alna: an ell. See ulna.

alnagium: measurement by the ell; duty paid by the ell.

alnetum: a place where alders grow, an alder grove.

aloarius, alodarius: the lord of a free manor.

alodium: a free manor.

alorium. See alura.

alosa: a shad, probably used for both the twaite shad and the allice shad. (Cuvier's alosa finta and alosa communis.)

aloverium: a purse.

alphita. See alfita.

altaragium: altarage; offerings made upon the altar; small tithes.

altarigium. See altaragium.

altarista: a priest assigned to one altar in a church.

altellus: an alien.

altera pars: half.

alterare: to change, alter.

alteratio: alteration.

altile: a fatted beast or fowl; a capon.

altiragium. See altaragium.

alura (Fr. aleur): an alure, a passage, alley; a parapet; a walk behind a parapet; a gutter.

alutarius: a cordwainer; a tanner; a tawyer; dressed leather.

alver: the same as aloverium (?).

alveus: a barge.

alviolum: a maund, a basket.

amalare: to enamel.

amanda: an almond.

amatista: an amethyst.

ambactus: a servant; a client.

ambana: an enclosure round a house; an outbuilding.

ambassiata: an embassy.

amabassiator: an ambassador.

ambidexter: a juror who takes money from both sides; a swindler.

ambis: a vase.

ambisiata. See ambassiata.

ambo: a pulpit, or reading desk.

ambra: a measure of wheat or salt, four bushels; a wine jar; amber.

ambro: bold, greedy; a prodigal.

ambrum: amber.

ambularius: an ambling horse.

ambulatorium: a passage, a gallery.

amelare: to enamel.

amensuramentum: measurement; assessment; estimate.

amensurare: to measure; to assess.

amera: willow.

amerciamentum: a pecuniary punishment.

amerciare: to amerce, fine.

amesuramentum. See amensuramentum.

amicia. See almucia.

amictus: an amice, a linen sacerdotal vestment forming a hood or collar.

amirellus: an admiral.

amittena: a sheeptick.

ammaylare: to enamel.

amminiculum. See adminiculum.

ammobragium, amobragium: a kind of service; a fine; the Welsh form of Mercheta.

amodo: then, afterwards.

amortizamentum: amortization.

amortizare: to alien lands in mortmain, to amortize.

amortizatio: amortization.

amotibilis, amovibilis: removeable.

amphibologia: ambiguity.

amphibolus: a cloak, an overall.

amphistrum: the helm of a ship.

ampliatio: deferring judgment till a cause is further examined.

amplicare: to enlarge.

ampulla: a vessel for holding holy oil; a reliquary.

amullus: some farm animal, a ram (?).

amuntare: to amount.

amuntia: amount.

anabatrum: a curtain.

anachoreta: a hermit; an anchorite.

analogium: a reading desk.

anamelatus: enamelled.

anata: a duck.

anatus: a drake.

anca: a haunch; an ancle.

ancareus: with a handle.

ancoragium: duty paid by ships when they anchor in a haven.

ancus: long (of gloves).

andena: a swath; as much ground as a man can stride over; an andiron.

andreseya: a dairy.

androchia, androgia: a dairy-maid.

androchiarium: a dairy.

anelacium: a knife; a dagger.

anella: a manacle, a handcuff.

angaria: a vexatious personal service; distress; the Ember weeks.

angarialis: grievous.

angariare: to compel.

angarius: a catchpole, an officer who arrests.

angeldum, angildum: the single valuation or fine imposed on a criminal.

Algleria: Englishry.

Angliceria: Englishry.

Anglici probatio: proof of Englishry.

animalia: oxen.

animequus: contented.

anitergium: a wisp of grass.

ankerissa: an ancress, a female hermit.

annales: yearling cattle.

annatae: first fruits; annates.

annatus: first-born; one year old.

annuale: yearly income of a prebendary; or of a priest for celebrating an anniverary.

annuarium: an anniversary; a calendar of anniversaries.

annuatim: yearly.

annulatus: ringed (of a pig).

anquiromagus: a ship's stern.

ansea: a truss.

ansorium: a shoemaker's knife; a razor.

antecessor: an ancestor; a predecessor in office; also the name of a servant attending on a dean and chapter.

antecinerales feriae: days before Ash Wednesday.

antegarda: vanguard.

antela: a poitrel.

antemurale: a barbican.

antenatio: the right of an elder child.

antependium: hangings in front of an altar.

antephalarica: a portcullis.

antesellum: a package carried in front of the saddle.

antesignatus (antesignanus): a soldier posted in front of the standard.

antianitas: antiquity, i.e. seniority; ancienty.

antianus: old, ancient.

antibata: an opponent.

antica: a hatch.

anticopa: a countertally.

antidoron: a gift given in exchange.

antigraphus: a scribe, a copyist.

antilopia: an antelope (heraldic).

antipera: a screen.

antiphona: alternate verses sung by the halves of the choir.

antiphonarium: a book containing anthems or antiphons.

antiphonista: an antiphoner, a leader in singing antiphons.

antiquitas: seniority; ancienty.

antistes: a bishop; an abbot.

antistita: an abbess.

antistitium: a monastery.

antithetarius: an accused person who charges his accuser with the same crime.

apanagium: the portion of a younger child.

apatisare: to agree; to ransom.

apechiamentum: impeachment.

aporia: poverty; trouble.

aporiare: to impoverish.

apostare: to transgress.

apostolos petere: to appeal to Rome.

apothecarius: a shopkeeper; a keeper of a granary or store; a druggist.

apparator: a messenger who serves the process of a spiritual court, an apparitor.

apparella: items of miscellaneous excess beyond current regulated expenditure. (Middle Temple.)

apparens lex: ordeal.

apparentia: appearance.

appares: equals.

apparura: furniture; equipment.

appatizare. See apatisare.

appellare: to appeal.

appellum: an appeal.

appendens: a thing of inheritance, belonging to a greater inheritance.

appenditia: appendages; appurtenances.

appendium: a reel.

appendix, appendicium: a pentice, a penthouse.

appennagium. See apanagium.

appensamentum: delay; postponement.

appensura: payment of money by weight.

appenticium: a pentice, a penthouse.

applauda: sauce.

applicium: an inn; lodging.

applita: harness; fittings.

appodiare: to prop up; to sustain.

appoisonare: to poison.

apponere: to pledge; to pawn.

apporia, apporria. See aporia.

apportionamentum: apportionment.

apportionare: to divide proportionally.

apportum: revenue or profit; corrody or pension; rent or tribute.

appreciare: to appraise.

apprendicius: an apprentice.

apprentisagium, apprenticiamentum: apprenticeship.

approbare: to augment the vaule of, as to increase the rent of land.

approbator: a person who confesses felony and accuses others, an approver.

appropriare: to annex a benefice to the use of a spiritual corporation or person; to appropriate.

appropriatio, appropriamentum: appropriation.

approvamentum: profits; crop.

approviare, approware, appruare se: to use for one's own profit, as to enclose waste land.

appruator: an officer in some towns (e.g. Wakefield) appointed to look after the interests of the lord of the manor.

appruntare: to borrow.

appunctuare: to appoint.

aprisa, aprisia: an inquisition, information.

aquagium: a watercourse; a holy water stoup.

aqualitium: a gutter.

aqualium: the top of the head.

aquare: to water.

aquarium: a ewer.

aquebachelus: a holy water clerk.

aquestus: acquisition.

arabilis: a maple tree.

aracium: a stud of horses. See haratium.

aralis: arable.

arallus: a ploughfoot.

aralus: a maple tree.

aratrum terrae: as much land as can be tilled with one plough.

aratum: a charter.

aratus: a day's ploughing.

arbalista, arbalistarius. See arcubalista.

arbalisteria: loopholes.

arcare: to be charged with; to build an arch; to vault.

arcarius: an archer; a keeper of an arca, a chest for the deposit of treasure or deeds.

arcenarius. See arconarius.

archearius: a bow bearer. See arcarius.

archemecherus: some officer in the household of Henry VI, perhaps chief cook.

archenius: a rick of corn.

archeria: archery.

archerius: a bow bearer.

archidiaconus: an archdeacon.

archiepiscopus: an archbishop.

archifenium: a croft of land.

archionium: a stack.

archipresbyter: chief priest in a collegiate church.

archisigillarius: chief keeper of a seal, a chancellor.

architector: a thatcher.

architenens: an archer.

archivum: a place where records are kept.

archivus: a keeper of records; a secretary.

archonista: a bowyer.

archus: a bow.

arcista. See artista.

arcisterium: a monastery (asceterium).

arconarius: a man engaged in some trade connected with wool.

arconium: a rick, a stack.

arconizare: to stack.

arcuare: to play a musical instrument which requires the use of a bow.

arcubalista: a crossbow, an arblast.

arcubalistarius: a crossbowman, an arblaster.

arcubius: a watchman.

arcubus, curia de: the Court of Arches, so called from the church of St. Mary de Arcubus (le Bow), where it was formerly held.

arcuere: to shoot with a bow.

arculius: a watchman.

arculus: a saddle bow.

arcussit: shot.

ardeda: a firegrate.

area: an open space; a cemetery.

arenga: a preamble; harangue.

areniare: to rein.

arentare: to let for a rent; to arrent; to rate.

arentatio: rental; assessment of rent.

aresta, pannus de: arras.

arestare: to arrest.

arestum: arrest.

a retro: in arrear.

argumentosus: ingenious.

argutarius canis: a greyhound.

arista, pannus de: arras.

arivagium: toll paid by ships on mooring at a wharf or port.

arivare: to approach the shore; to arrive.

arlechatus: equipped.

arma dare: to make a knight.

armaria: a cupboard; an aumbry; a study.

armariolum: a little cupboard.

armarium. See armaria.

armarius: a librarian in a monastery.

armatura: armour; military exercise.

armelausa: a cloak.

armicudium: a dagger.

armiger: an esquire.

armilausa: a cloak.

armilustrium: a tournament.

armiturium: a dagger.

armurarius: an armourer.

arnaglosa: plantain.

arnaldia: a disease, perhaps baldness.

aromatarius: a grocer; a spicer.

arpa: a young eagle.

arpendum, arpennum, arpentum: a small plot of land; an acre.

arquilla: a linchpin.

arquillus: a saddle bow (?); an ox yoke.

arquinecca: some drug or spice.

arrabilis: a maple tree.

arraiamentum: array, in reference either to a jury, or to soldiers.

arrariare: to array.

arraiatio. See arraiamentum.

arraiatores: arrayers, officers whose duty it was to see that soldiers were properly accoutred.

arrainamentum: arraignment.

arrainare, arrainiare: to claim; to arraign, to accuse.

arramiare. See arainare.

arramire, adrumire: to promise, esp. in a court of law.

arraria: arrears.

arratum: a charter.

arraya. See arraiamentum.

arrectatus: suspected; accused.

arrenamentum: arraignment.

arrenare. See arrainare.

arrenda: rent.

arrentare. See arentare.

arrepticius: possessed by an evil spirit.

arreragium: arrearage; respite of payment.

arrestare: to arrest.

arrestum: arrest.

arriolari: to foretell (hariolari).

arrivagium. See arivagium.

arrivare. See arivare.

arrura. See arura.

arsina: arson; house-burning.

arsinale: an arsenal.

arsura: trial of money by fire.

artavum: a small knife.

articulare: to draw up in articles; to article.

articulus: an article; esp. a complaint exhibited in a Court Christian.

artificium: handicraft.

artillator: a maker of artillery.

artilleria: artillery.

artista: one who has taken a degree in arts.

artitus: skilfully made or arranged.

arura: ploughing; a day's work with a plough; a ploughland; a tilled field; crops.

arvambulus: a tramp.

ascella: the part where the arm joins the shoulder; the armpit (axilla).

ascerra: a ship for incense.

asceterium: a monastery.

asiamentum. See aisiamentum.

asinare: to ride on an ass.

aspersorium: a sprinkler; a vase for holy water.

aspiculna: a ladle or fork used in frying.

assacella: a stove.

assaia, assaium: assay; examination of weights and measures, of bread, beer, &c.

assaiare: to assay, to examine.

assaiator: an assayer.

assallire: to assault.

assaltus: an assault.

assartare: to bring forest land into cultivation by grubbing up the roots, &c.

assartum: assart, land brought into cultivation.

assaturis: a gridiron.

assaysiare (of judges): to call others to assist them.

assecurare: to make secure by pledge or oath; to assure.

assedare. See assidare.

assemblare: to assemble.

assemblata, assemblatio: an assembly.

asseratus: wainscotted.

asserrum: steel.

assessare: to assess; to fine.

assessio: assessment.

assessor: an assessor.

asseurare. See assecurare.

asseware, assewiare: to drain marsh ground.

assidare, assidere: to tax equally; to assess.

assidella: a table dormant.

assidiare: to besiege; to attack.

assignare: to transfer a right; to appoint a deputy; to declare; to pledge.

assignare se ad: to attack; to lay hands on.

assignatio: assignment; transference of interest.

assignatus: an assignee; a deputy.

assimulare: to put together; to collect.

assisa: a fixed measure; a tax or fine; a sitting of justices to hear causes; a jury; certain statutes and writs are also called assisae.

assisa panis et cerevisiae: the power of examining the weight and measure of bread and beer.

assisores: assessors.

assisus: rented or farmed out.

assisus redditus, redditus assisae: rent of assize; fixed rent.

assoniare: to essoin.

assueare: to drain.

assuera: a drain.

assultus: an assault.

assumare: to kill.

assumptio: the anniversary of the death of a saint.

assurantia: assurance.

assurare: to assure.

astela: a staff.

astrarius haeres: an heir who occupies his inheritance during his ancestor's life.

astrium: a hearth; a house.

astructus: instructed.

astrum. See astrium.

astula: a piece of firewood.

astur. See austur.

asura: azure.

aszeisia. See azesia.

atachiare, &c. See attachiare.

athia, atia: hatred, malice.

atilium, atillium: a utensil; an implement; gear; the rigging of a ship.

atinctus. See attinctus.

atirare: to equip.

atratus: a mourner.

atriamentum: a courtyard.

attachare: to affix.

attachiamentum: attachment; apprehension of a person or seizing goods; articles seized with a criminal, showing his guilt; right of using (underwood, water, &c.).

attachiamentum forestae: the lower court of a forest.

attachiare: to take in pursuance of a writ; to attach.

attachiator: an officer who makes attachment; a bailiff.

attagiare: to attach.

attaincta, attincta: attaint, a writ against a jury for giving a false verdict.

attamiare, attaminare: to broach.

attaxare: to assess.

attegia: a little house.

atterminare: to put withing certain boundaries; to postpone to a certain day; to atterm.

athagiare. See attachiare.

attilamentum. See atilium.

attiliaria: military engines; artillery.

attilliamentum. See atilium.

attilliator: a maker of artillery or military engines.

attilium. See atilium.

attincta: attaint.

attinctare: to attaint.

attinctus: attainted.

attirare: to equip.

attornamentum: an acknowledgement by a tenant of a new lord, attornment.

attornare: to assign goods to some special use; to appoint an attorney; to pack (?).

attornata: a commission.

attornatus: an attorney.

attractorium: a train; a trace.

attractus: carriage by dragging, draught; store.

atturnare, &c. See attornare, &c.

aubergellum: a habergeon, a tunic of mail.

aubobulcus: an oxherd.

auca: a goose; some article of plate, perhaps an ewer; an enclosed piece of land.

aucipiter: a falcon.

auctenticare: to declare authentic.

auctionarius, auctionator: a retailer; a broker.

aucubaculare: to catch birds after dark, to batfowl.

aucula: a gosling.

aucuntacio: used for augmentatio.

aucupia: game.

auditor: a catechumen; an examiner of accounts.

augea: a cistern.

aula: a court baron; the nave of a church.

auleum: a hanging, tapestry.

aunciatus: antiquated.

auncinium: an afternoon meal.

auracio: gilding.

aurare: to gild.

aureolus: a golden oriole (oriolus galbula), or goldfinch (fringilla carduelis).

auricalcum: latten.

auriculare: a cushion; a defence for the ears of a horse.

auricularis digitus: the little finger.

auricularius: a secretary.

aurifex: a goldsmith.

aurificium: goldsmith's work.

aurifilum: gold thread.

aurifragium. See aurifrigium.

aurifraser, aurifresarius: an embroiderer.

aurifriatus, aurifrigiatus: having an orphrey.

aurifrigium, aurifresium, aurifrisium, aurifrixium: an orphrey, golden embroidery on clerical vestments.

aurisia: blindness (Gk. aorisia).

auroca, aurocus: a haycock, a hayrick; the quantity of hay which can be lifted on a handle of a scythe.

aurus. See averus.

austur, austurcus: a goshawk (astur palumbarius. Fr. autour).

austurcharius: a falconer.

ausungius: fat.

autela: a horse's breastplate or poitrel, probably an error for antela.

autumnus: translated "summer" in the books of the Middle Temple.

autumpnare: to bring the harvest home.

auxilium: an aid.

auxionarius. See auctionarius.

avagium: payment for right of pannage in the lord's wood.

avalagium: a fixed engine to take fish; eelbucks; the descent of a river; toll paid therefor.

avalare: to descend a river.

avantagium. See advantagium.

avaragius: one who looks after draught cattle.

avellana nux: a hazel nut.

avenagium: avenage, rent paid in oats.

avenarius: an avener, purveyor of oats.

avencia: advance.

aventallum: a ventaile, or visor.

aventura. See adventura.

avera: a day's work of a ploughman.

averagium: service with horse and carriage due by the tenant to his lord; contribution by merchants towards losses of cargo by tempest.

averarius: a man who looks after farm cattle.

averia: horses or oxen for the plough; cattle generally.

averia de pondere, or ponderis: avoirs du poys, i.e. fine goods, such as spices, weighed by the pound at the king's small balance when the duty was charged.

averium: goods, merchandise.

averrare: to carry goods in a wagon, or on horseback.

averus: a farm horse, or draught ox.

aviaticus: a nephew.

avironatus: rowing.

avironus: an oar.

avis: used like the Fr. oiseau, for a hawk or falcon.

avisagium. See avagium.

avisamentum: advice.

avisare: to advise.

avoare. See avocare.

avoaria: avowry.

avocare: to avow, confess; to justify.

avragium. See averagium.

avrus. See averus.

awardium: an award.

axare: to make or fit an axle-tree.

axiliare: to help.

aymellatus: enamelled.

ayziamentum. See aisiamentum.

azaldus: an inferior horse.

azarum: steel.

azesiae: tiles (?), shingles (?).


a horseshoe.

baca: an iron hook or staple.

bacar: a turnip.

baccalarius, baccalaureus: a bachelor.

baccile, baccinium: a bason.

bachelarius: a young knight; a knight disqualified from youth or poverty from carrying a banner in war. See baccalarius.

bacheleria: the commonalty, as distinguished from the baronage.

bacho. See baco.

bacile, bacina, bacinus: a bason.

bacinettum: a basinet, a helmet smaller than a helm and usually pointed at the top.

bacium: a horsecloth. O.E. base. See bassum.

baco: a hog; a salted pig's carcase; a flitch of bacon; a ham.

bactile: a candlestick, esp. of wood.

bacularius: a bachelor.

baculus: a crozier.

badius: bay (horse).

baffa: a flitch of bacon.

baga: a bag or purse.

bagatinus: a small brass Venetian coin, worth in the 17th century about one sixteenth of a penny.

bagea: a badge.

bagus: bay (horse).

bahuda, bahudum: a chest; a trunk, called a barehide in English.

baia: rumour; a bay.

baiardus: a bay horse.

baila, bailium: bail.

bailius, baillivus: a bailiff.

baillia: bailiwick.

baillium: a grant in trust; the "bailey" of a castle.

baius: bay (of a horse).

bajula: a pitcher; the office of bajulus; a nurse.

bajulator: a bearer; a guardian.

bajulus: a bearer; a bailiff.

bajulus aquilae: an officer in the military order of St. John of Jerusalem, the Bailly of the Eagle.

bakeria: a bakehouse.

bala: a bale.

balancea, balancia: a pair of scales.

balasius: a balasse ruby, of a pale colour.

balca: a balk (of land).

balcanifer: the standard-bearer of the Knights Templar.

balcanum: The Templars' standard.

baldacinifer. See balconifer.

baldekinum, baldicum: baudekin, a kind of brocade of silk and gold, originally brought from Bagdad; a canopy.

baldrea: a baldric.

balducta: a posset.

balengaria, balingarium: a balinger; a barge.

balesius. See balasius.

baleuga. See banleuga.

balidinus: bay (of a horse).

balista: used for a cross-bow, which is properly arcubalista.

balistarius: an arblaster, a cross-bowman.

balla. See ballia, balliva.

ballare: to sweep; to dance.

ballatio: a ballad.

balleuca. See banleuga.

ballia: the "bailey" of a castle. See balliva.

ballium: bail; the "bailey" of a castle; wardship; a grant in trust.

ballius: a bailiff.

balliva, ballivatus: bailiwick; office.

ballivus: a bailiff.

balneare: to bathe.

balneo, miles de: a knight of the Bath.

balneta: some sort of whale.

balus: a bale.

balustraria: loopholes.

bamba: a bed.

bancale, bancarium: a banker, a covering for a bench.

bancum, bancus: a bench.

banda: a band (of soldiers).

bandum: a pennon.

baneale: error for bancale (?), q.v.

banera, baneria: a banner.

banerettus: a knight made in the field, by cutting off the point of his pennon and making it a banner.

banidium: a badge.

banleuga, bannaleuca: the bounds of a manor or town; the circuit of a monastery over which it has jurisdiction. (Fr. banlieu.)

bannum, banum: a proclamation; a boundary; (pl.) bans of matrimony.

banum: a bane.

baractator, barator: a barretor, a common mover of suits and quarrels.

barbacana, barbakena. See barbicana.

barbator: a barber.

barbatus: barbed, of an arrow.

barbecana. See barbicana.

barbelatus: barbed.

barbicana: an outwork of a fortress.

barbicanagium: contribution for the maintenance of a barbican.

barbillus: a barbel (barbus vulgarius) or mullet (mullus barbatus).

barbitonsor: a barber.

barbitura: shaving.

barbota: a barge; an armed vessel.

barbulus: a barbel (barbus vulgaris).

barca: a barque.

barcaria. See bercaria and barkaria.

barcarius. See bercarius.

barcius: a fish, probably perch (perca fluviatilis), perhaps also bass (labrax lupus).

bardatus: barded, armed with a bard (of a horse).

barellus: a barrel.

baresta: a barrister.

barettus: probably the same as warectus.

barga. See barca and bargea.

bargania: an agreement; a bargain.

barganizare: to bargain.

bargea, bargia: a barge; part of a horse's trappings.

barhuda, barhuta, barhuzia: a chest; a trunk, a barehide.

barillum, barrillus: a barrel.

barka: a barge; a barque.

barkaria: a tan-house.

barmbraccus: a lap-dog.

barnagium: baronage.

baro: a baron.

baronagium: baronage.

baronatus: barony; baronage.

baronettus: a baronet.

baronia: a barony.

baronissa: a baroness.

barra, barrha: a bar, a barrier; a bar to an action.

barractator: a barretor, an instigator of suits and quarrels.

barragium: toll for crossing a bridge.

barrare: to put bars to.

barrasterius: a barrister.

barratria: dissension; barratry.

barrista: a barrister.

barruzia. See barhuda.

bartona: demesne lands; a manor house.

barutellum: a cask.

bascinus: a bason.

basculus: a basket.

basena. See bazeyna.

basilardum: a long poniard; a falchion; a cutlass. (Early Chanc. Proc. 47, 256.)

basnetum: a basinet. See bacinettum.

bassare: to lower.

bassaria camera: a base chamber.

basselardus. See basilardum.

bassellus: a coin abolished by king Henry II.

bassum: a pack saddle.

bassus: low.

bastardia: bastardy.

bastardus: one born out of wedlock.

bastida, bastita: a castle, a word used especially in Southern France.

basto: a staff.

bastonicum: close custody.

basum. Per basum tolnetum capere, to take toll by strike.

batalia: battle.

batella, batellus: a small boat.

batellagium: boat-hire.

batellarius: a boatman; a bateller, the lowest order in Oriel College.

batellatus: embattled.

batellus: a boat. See batillus.

bateria: battery, beating.

batilda: toll for boats (?).

batillagium: carriage by boat; boat-hire.

batillare: to send by boat.

batillus: a bat; a beetle; a clapper; a boat.

batitoria: a fulling mill.

batium. See bacium.

bativa, batura: battery.

batleuga. See banleuga.

batus: a boat; a measure, 12 and a half gallons; a peck; a vessel used in feeding horses; a bat.

baubare: to bark; to bay.

baubella: jewels.

bauca: a bason.

baucaria: a tapster.

baudekinum. See baldekinum.

bausanus: a badger, a bawson.

bausia, bosia: treason, felony.

bausiare, bosiare: to rebel.

bauzanus: piebald (Fr. baucant, bauzant.)

baya. See baia.

bazantius. See bisantius.

bazeyna: basil, prepared leather.

bechare: to dig; to use a pickaxe.

becnus: some sort of fish.

beconagium: contribution for the maintenance of beacons.

bedelaria: the office of beadle, or district to which his office extends; bedellary.

bedellus: a beadle, or bedell.

bederipa. See bedrepium.

bedrepium: bedripe, harvest work done by tenants as a customary service; it sometimes means a definite amount, perhaps a day's work.

bedripus. See bedrepium.

bedum: the portion of a millstream which turns the wheel and is boarded up to increase the force of water.

belfredus: a belfry.

belgiga: a car, a chariot.

bellicrepa: a muster.

belligerare: to make war.

bellum: a battle; used, as the English word is, to denote a portion of an army; a judicial combat, duel.

benda: a band, either metal or stuff; a bar; a bend (heraldic).

beneficiare: to confer a benefice on; to enfeoff.

beneficium: a benefice, an ecclesiastical living or promotion.

benevolentia: a voluntary gratuity given by subjects to the king.

benwrda: benerthe, service with plough and cart.

beodum: a table.

bera: a bier. See beria, bersa.

berbiagium: a rent paid in sheep, or tax paid on sheep.

berbicaria: pasture for sheep.

berbix: a sheep.

bercaria: a sheepfold, sheepcote; a sheepwalk.

bercarius: a shepherd.

bercelettus. See bracelettus.

berdare: to beard or bard wool, i.e., to cut the head and neck off the fleece.

berebrutus: a man who takes charge of and distributes beer (?).

berefredus, berefridus: a belfry.

berewicha: a village or hamlet.

berfrarium: a military engine.

beria: an open plain.

berkeria. See bercaria.

bernaca: a bernicle goose (anser bernicla).

bernarius: a forest officer; a bearward; a beardog.

bernix: varnish.

berra: a heath, or moor.

bersa: the fence inclosing a park; an inclosure.

bersare: to hunt; to shoot.

bersarius: a hunter; a forester or park-keeper.

berseletta, berseretta: a small hound, used for fallow deer.

berthona, bertona. See bartona.

berwica: a village or hamlet.

berziza: beer, or perhaps wort.

besacutum. See bisacuta.

besantus. See bisantius.

besca, bescha: a spade; a shovel.

bescare: to dig.

bescarium: a spade.

bescata: as much land as a man can dig in a day.

beschillum: a spade.

bestiae: beasts (deer or cattle, usually the former).

betagius: a serf whose lord is a church or convent.

beudum: a table.

bever: a beaver (castor fiber).

beverinus, beverius: of beaver.

bibatio: drinking.

biberagium: beverage.

biberia, biberrium: an afternoon lunch, bever.

bibina. See biberia.

bibis, cum suis: error for vivis (?), livestock.

bibletum: a place where rushes grow.

bibona: a spout.

bica: a bees' nest; a beehive.

bicarius: a bee-keeper.

bicoca: a turret.

bidellus: a bedell: a beadle.

bidens: a pitchfork.

bidripa. See bedrepium.

bidua: a female sheep from 1 to 2 years old, a gimmer.

biduana: a fast of two days.

biforalis: with two doors or shutters.

biga: a two-wheeled cart; its load. "Anglice, a wagon," in a deed temp. Jac. I.

bigarius: a carter.

bigata: a cart load.

bigera: a doublet.

bigustrum: a primrose.

bilagines: bye-laws.

bilheta: a bill: a billet.

bilettum: a billet.

bilinguis: (of a jury) part English and part foreign.

billa: a bill.

billetum: a billet; a stake.

billia: a branch; a post.

billio: money of copper, or copper and silver; bullion.

billus: a staff or stick.

bilneta: a passport.

bina: a pair-horse cart.

bindum: a bundle; a bind of eels in 250; a stalk of hops; used also for skins.

binnarium: a fishpond, an error for vivarium (?).

bino: a ploughtail; a cart pole.

bipalium: a spade.

birrettum: a thin close-fitting cap; a coif.

bisacuta: a two-headed axe; a black bill, a twybill.

bisantius: a besant, a gold coin, first issued by the emperors of Byzantium, worth about a ducat; a bezant in heraldry.

bisantius albus: a silver besant, worth about 2s.

bisantius de plata: The same.

biscoctus, biscotus: biscuit.

bisius. See bisus.

bisquetta: part of a castle.

bissa: a hind.

bisus: lawn; cambric.

bisus panis: brown bread.

bivernagium: second crop.

bizachius: a baselard, a cutlass.

bizantium. See bisantius.

bladarius: a cornchandler.

bladum: corn.

blanchetta, blanchetum: a woolen garment worn under armour.

blanchetus: a blanket.

blanchiatura: reduction of base money to its true value.

blanci: white money, sterling.

blancum: a silver coin, worth 8d., coined by Henry V in France.

blancum argentum: money tested at the Exchequer as to its fineness.

blancum firme: blanch farm.

blandella: a cloak; a blanket.

blanhornum: a horn. (A.S. blauhorn.)

blaserius: an incendiary.

blaudius. See blodeus.

blaunchetta. See blanchetta.

blaundella. See blandella.

blendus. See bleudius.

blestia: turf.

blestro: a branch.

blestura: branches.

bleta: peat.

blettro: a branch.

bleuius: blue.

blida, blidus: a catapult.

blodeus, blodius: deep red; blue.

blondus: yellow; fair-haired.

bluedius, bluetus: blue.

blundus. See blondus.

blurus: bald.

bocardo: a prison.

bocca: a boss.

bocellus. See botellus.

boculus: a bullock.

boga: budge, lamb fur.

bogetta: a budget.

boia. See buia.

boisiare: to rebel.

boissellus: a bushel.

bokorammus: buckram.

bolare: to play at bowls.

boldagium, bolhagium: a cottage.

bolengarius: a baker.

bolla: a bowl; three-quarters of a pint; a boll, 6 bushels.

boloninus: a boloner, an Italian gold coin of two kinds, old boloners and Papal boloners, bearing on one side the Resurrection, on the other St. Thomas the Apostle of India or Mary Magdalene, the former being slightly more valuable.

bombarda, bombardus: a cannon.

bombicina: a hacqueton, a jack, a quilted tunic.

bombosus: noisy.

bombycinium: padding.

boncha: a bunch; a bank.

bondagium: villenage; slavery; a tenement held by a villein.

bondemannus: a bondman.

bondus: a serf; a slave.

borachia: an erection for fishing. See burochium.

borda: a plank; a hut; a small farm.

bordagium: tenure by which bordarii hold.

bordaria: a cottage.

bordarius: a cottier; also probably a farm-labourer living at the farm-house; a table servant; an inferior domestic servant.

bordellus: a small house.

bordus, bordum: a board.

boriens, borientalis: north.

boscagium: food which trees yield to cattle, as mast and acorns.

boscar. See bostar.

boscarium: a wooden house; a cowhouse.

boscarius: a woodman.

boscus: a wood.

bosia, bausia: treason, felony.

bosiare, bausiare: to rebel.

bosonus: a weapon, perhaps an arrow. See buzo.

bostar, bostarium: a stable for oxen.

bostarius: a gravedigger.

bostio: a cattle driver.

bota, botta: a boot; a bunch; a bundle; a bottle (of hay).

botellarius: a butler; a bottle maker.

botelleria: a buttery, or butlery.

botellus: a bottle; the stomach.

botescarlus: a boatman.

botha: a booth.

bothagium: payment for permission to erect boots at fairs and markets.

bothena: a barony, lordship.

bothna, buthna: a park for cattle.

botillum: a boltell. i.e. a round moulding or bead; a small shaft in a clustered column.

boto: a button.

botonare: to button.

botracium: a buttress.

botrus: a cluster.

botta. See bota.

bottellaria. See botelleria.

bounda: a boundary.

bavaria: a cattle-shed.

bovarius: an ox-herd.

bovata terrae: an ox-gang.

boveria, boverium: a cattle-shed.

bovetta: a heifer.

bovettus: a steer, a young ox.

boviculus: a young ox, but not the same as bovettus.

bovina: a stable for oxen; a cow-house.

bozetum: cowdung.

braca terrae: a ridge of earth, a balk. (Fr. braye.)

bracalia: breeches.

bracco: a brache, a small hound; often means a bitch.

bracelettus: diminutive of bracetus.

bracenarius: a hunstman.

bracetus, bracheta: a brachet, a hound for hare and fox, a beagle (?).

bracha: a cloak. See bracco.

brachanum: a carpet (?).

brachia: some fixed fishing engine.

brachiare: to brew.

brachiata: an armful; a fathom.

brachinum: a kneading trough.

braciare: to brew.

braciatorium: a brewhouse.

bracinum: a brewhouse; a brew.

braconarius. See bracenarius.

braelli: breeches.

braesium: malt.

bragetum: bragwort, or bracket, a drink flavoured with honey and spice.

bragmannus: a robber, marauder.

brandium: buckram.

branda, brando: a torch.

brandones: the first week in Lent.

brandonis vel brandonum dies: the first Sunday in Lent.

branis: brawn, muscle.

brannus: a fish, probably a bream (abramis brama).

brao: a ham; a gammon, possibly a misreading of baco.

braseum: malt.

brasiare: to brew.

brasiaria: a malthouse; a brewery.

brasiator: a maltster; a brewer.

brasina: a brewhouse.

brasinagium: brewing.

brasinum: the quantity of beer brewed at one time.

brasium: malt.

brasorium: a brewhouse.

brassata: a measure of 6 feet.

brattea: a leaf of metal, foil.

bravium: a prize.

breca: half a virgate (Worcester Priory Reg.).

brecca, brecka: a breach. See also braca.

brechia. See braca, brecca.

bredna: a bream.

breidura: embroidery.

breisna: wethers.

brella: starch.

bremia: a bream.

bremium: bran.

bremulus: a bream.

brenagium: a rent paid in bran, for the feed of the lord's hounds.

brenna, brennia: a bream (abramis brama).

brennium, breno: bran.

bresmia, bresna, bresnia: bream.

bretaschia: a stockade.

bretechia, bretesca: a stockade.

brethachia: a stockade.

brethachiare: to fortify with stockades.

bretnia: a bream.

breve: a writ.

breviarium: a breviary.

brevigerulus: one who carries and serves writs.

brevis: a brief.

brevitor: a writer of writs.

bria: a liquid measure.

brianneum servitium: same as brenagium (?). (Selby Coucher, f. 122b.)

briga: contention; tumult.

brigandinarius: on officer in command of a brigade.

brigata: a brigade.

Brigittensis: a nun of the order of St. Bridget.

broca: a tap. See brocha.

brocagium, broccagium: a broker's hire; brokerage.

brocatus: stitched. See brocha.

broccarius, broccator: a broker.

brocella: a wood.

brocellum: brushwood.

brocha, broccus: an awl; a packing needle; a spit.

brochia: a pitcher.

brochus: a stick of eels, i.e. 25.

broculator: a brewer.

brodiellum: brewet, pottage.

brodium: broth.

broidare, broiderare: to embroider.

brokettus: a brocket, a stag in its second or third year; but in Cl. R. 21 Hen. III. m. 12, the word is applied to damos, i.e. fallow deer.

brollium: wood, esp. for game.

broncheria: Palm Sunday.

brossus: bruised.

bruarium: heather: heath ground.

brudatus: embroidered.

bruera: heath.

bruilletus: a small coppice.

bruillium. See brollium.

bruisdatus, brusdatus: embroidered.

brullium. See brollium.

brumillus: a bream (abramis brama).

brunda: a stag's horn.

bruneta. See burneta.

brunus: brown.

bruscare: to browse.

bruscia: a wood.

bruscus: brush; broom plant; a beehive.

brussura, brusura: a bruise.

brusua, brusula: browse; brushwood.

bucca, bucia. See bussa.

buccare: to puff.

buccula. See bucla.

bucecarlus: a boatman.

bucellum: a leather bottle.

bucetum: a cattle stall.

bucla: a boss; a buckle.

buclarium: a buckler.

bucula: a buckle.

buculus: the rim of a shield.

buda: a mat.

budellus. See bedellus.

bufetum: a board, a cupboard.

buffa: a large ship (error for bussa?).

bugerannum: buckram.

bugo: a stump, a log. (Fr. buche.)

bugula: a buckle.

buhurdicium: a tournament.

buia, buio: the two parts of a fetter.

buillo. See bullio.

bujectum: budge, lamb fur.

bukelarius: a buckler.

bulengerius: a baker.

buletellum: a sieve. See bultellum.

bulettare: to boult.

bulga, bulgium: a budget; a portmanteau; a bale.

bulla: a seal; a papal bull, sealed with lead or gold.

bullare: to append a bulla or seal.

bullaria: the office where the bulla was appended.

bullatus: sealed.

bulleria: a salt house (?).

bullio: a measure of salt, 12 gallons; a measure of almonds; bullion.

bullire: to boil.

bultellum, bultellus: a sieve; bran; the refuse of meal after it is dressed by the baker.

bunda: a boundary.

bundare: to bound.

bundellus: a bundle.

bura: a lock of hair or wool.

burbalia, burbilia: the numbles of a deer.

burbulium: a bubble.

burburium. See burbalia.

burcerius: the captain of a ship.

burcida: a thief, a cutpurse.

burdare, burdeare: to jest; to joust.

burdeicia, burdicium: a tournament.

burdo: a staff. (Fr. bourdon.)

burdus: a board.

burellarius: a bureller, maker of borel, or maker of yarn.

burellator: a bureller. See burellarius.

burellatus: barred.

burellus: borel or burrel, a coarse brown or grey woolen cloth made in Normandy as well as in England (Fr. bureau); a cupboard; a borrell, a boring tool.

burgagium: the service whereby a borough is held; a dwelling-house in a borough; burgage.

burgare: to break into a house, to commit burglary.

burgaria: burglary.

burgarius: a burgess.

burgator: a burglar.

burgemotus: an assembly of burgesses.

burgensis: a burgess; a townsman.

burgeria: burglary.

burgesaticum: land held by burgage tenure.

burghheritha: a fine for breach of the peace in a town.

burglaria: burglary.

burgulariter: burglariously.

burgus: a borough.

burlemannus: the contable's assistant in a Court leet.

burneta, burnetum: cloth made of dyed wool; a kind of bird.

burniciator: a burnisher.

burochium: a small weel for taking fish, a burrock.

burrellus. See burellus.

bursa: an exchange, a meeting place of merchants.

bursaria: a bursary.

bursarius: a bursar; a purse maker.

burscida: a cutpurse.

bursesaticum. See burgesaticum.

burum: a room.

burus: a husbandman.

busca: underwood; firewood.

buscardus: a transport ship.

buscare: to cut underwood.

buscarlus: a seaman.

buscellum. See bucellum.

buscha, buscia: underwood. See bussa.

busellus: a bushel.

busones: chief persons (barones?).

bussa: a great ship. The English buss is a fishing boat.

bussellus: a bushel.

bussio: a bush.

busta: a box.

butarius: a butler; a bootmaker (?).

buteleria, butellarium: a buttery.

butellus. See botellus.

buteus: a boat.

buthsecarlus. See buscarlus.

buthum. See buttum.

buticularia: a buttery.

buticularius: a butler.

butirum: butter.

butisellus: a small bottle.

butta, butticum: a butt of wine.

butticella: a buttery.

buttileria: a buttery, or butlery.

buttum terrae: a butt of land, the end of a ploughed field.

buturum: butter.

buxeria: a plantation of box trees.

buya. See buia.

buzardum: a transport ship.

buzo: the shaft of an arrow.

bycus: boxwood.

byzantius. See bisantius.


a cable.

caabulus: a machine for throwing stones, a perriere. (Fr. chaable).

caballus: a horse.

cabana: a cabin.

cabdellus: a chief judge at Dax. (Fr. chadelerre.)

cabdolium: a castle or chief building in a town.

cabla: a cable.

cableicium, cablicia, cablicium: windfall wood; brouse wood; cablish.

cabo: a stallion.

cacepollus: a catchpole, or inferior bailiff.

cacherellus: a catchpole.

cachiagium: packing, or payment therefor.

cacor. See chasor.

cada: a cade of herrings, 600 of 6 score to the 100.

cadaverator morine: a man who removes the carcases of sheep dead of murrain.

cadia: a piece of firewood.

cadicla: a weaver's shuttle; the woof.

cadium: a quay.

Caesar: the emperor.

caesareus: imperial.

cafagium: a stall; a cage; a pen.

caffa: some silk stuff.

cagia: a net for hunting; a coop; a cage.

cairellus: a quarel, a crossbow bolt.

calacha: a shoe. (Fr. galoche.)

calafurcium: gallows.

calamandrum: a kerchief.

calamar: a penner.

calamistratus: lazy; effeminate.

calangia, calangium: a challenge; a claim.

calbla: a cable.

calcari: to be assessed for.

calcaria, una: a pair of spurs.

calcarius: a spurrier.

calcea, calceia: chalk; a causey, or causeway; a street; pavement.

calceatura: livery.

calcesta: white clover.

calceta, calcetum: lime; a causey, or causeway; a street; pavement.

calcifurnium: a limekiln.

calcitura: shoeing horses.

caldaria: a caldron.

caldearium, caldellum: caudle.

calderium: a caldron.

caldo: entrails.

caledeus: a Culdee.

calefactor cerae: a chafewax, an officer in the Court of Chancery.

calefagium: the right of taking fuel.

calefurcium: gallows.

calendae: rural chapters held on the first of the month.

calendare: to make a list; to calendar.

calendarium: a list; a calendar; a table of contents.

calengiare: to challenge.

caleptra: a cap.

calfagium: fuel.

calificare. See qualificare.

caligarum, unum par de: "one pair of woolen cloth Venetians" (1601).

calix: a chalice.

calixtorium: a limekiln.

calmacia: calm weather.

calmetum: marsh.

calopodium: a shoemaker's last.

calumnia: a challenge; a claim.

calumniare: to challenge; to accuse; to claim.

calumniatio: right of challenge.

calumniator: a claimant; an accuser.

calyx: a chalice.

camacatus: made of camaca.

camahutum: a cameo.

camaka: camaca, a material of which ecclesiastical garments were made, perhaps silk, camlet (?).

cambellanus: a chamberlain.

cambiare, cambire: to exchange; to trade; to keep a bank.

cambiator. See cambitor.

cambipartia. See campipartitio.

cambire. See cambiare.

cambitio: exchange.

cambitor: an exchanger, a moneyer.

cambium: an exchange; a mint.

cambra. See camera.

cambuca, cambuta: a pastoral staff, a crosier.

cambucarius: one who bears a crosier.

cambutio: exchange.

cambuttae: stilts; crutches.

camelotum: camel's hair cloth.

camera: a crooked plot of ground; a chamber.

camera stellata: the Star Chamber.

cameralis: chamber (adj.).

cameraria: the office of chamberlain.

camerarius: a chamberlain.

cameria: the office of chamberlain.

camerlengus: a chamberlain.

camicia: a shirt.

caminus, caminum: a road; a chamber; a chimney; a stove.

camisia: a shirt; an alb.

camoca: a silken garment.

campana: a bell.

campanarium: a belfrey.

campanarius: a bell founder.

campanella: a little bell.

campania: open country.

campanile: a belfry.

campanus: country (adj.).

campartum: part of a larger field, which would otherwise be in common; or the right of the lord to take a certain share of the crop.

campedulum: a cope.

campertum. See campartum.

campestralis: open country.

campestratus: wearing short drawers.

campio: a champion.

campipars. See campartum.

campiparticeps: a champertor.

campipartitio: champerty, a bargain with the plaintiff or defendant in a suit to have part of the thing sued for.

campsare: to exchange, to traffic.

campsor: a banker; an exchanger; an exchequer officer.

campus: field (heraldic).

canabasium, canabus: canvas.

canapeum: a canopy.

canardus: a great ship.

cancella: the chancel of a church.

cancellare: to delete writing by drawing lines across it; to cancel.

cancellaria: chancery.

cancellarius: a chancellor.

cancellatura: cancelling.

cancellum: the chancel of a church.

cancera: a crab, a sort of capstan for moving heavy weights.

candelaria: Candlemas.

candelarius: a chandler.

candelatio: Candlemas.

candelossa: Candlemas.

candidare: to wash clothes.

candidarius: a launder, a whitster.

candredum. See cantreda.

canella: cinnamon.

canellus: a gutter, a kennel; a tube or tap for drawing wine.

canestellus: a basket.

caneva: a buttery; a cellar.

canevacium: canvas.

canfara: ordeal by hot iron.

canipulus: a short sword; a knife.

canna: a rod used for measuring land; a can.

canniare: to heap up straw or reeds.

canonia, canonicatus: a canonry.

canonicus: a canon, a prebendary.

cantaredus. See cantreda.

cantaria: a chantry.

cantarista: a chantry priest.

cantellum: a lump; that which is added above measure.

cantera: a gantry, or gantril, a four-footed stand for barrels, or for a travelling crane. Perhaps ths same as cancera.

canto: a canton (heraldic).

cantor: a chanter; a precentor.

cantreda, cantredus: a cantref, a Welsh division of a county, a hundred villages.

cantus: a corner; an angle; some part of a wheel.

capa: a mantle; a cope; a cap.

capana: a pot-hook.

caparo: a hood.

capella: a cap; a chaplet; a short mantle; a reliquary; a chapel; the furniture of a chapel.

capellania: a collegiate church; a chaplaincy; a chapelry; a vicarage.

capellanus: a chaplain.

capellaria: a chapelry.

capellarius: a capper.

capelletum: a headpiece.

capellula: a small chapel.

capellum, capellus: a cap; a helmet.

capicerius: a vestry keeper.

capicium. See capitium.

capillare: a coif.

capisterium: a sieve; a barn, a granary; a bed-curtain.

capistrius: a maker of halters.

capitagium: chevage, poll-money; a bolster.

capitale: a chattell; a thing which is stolen, or the value of it; a hood; a pillow.

capitale vivens: live cattle.

capitalis: chief.

capitales acrae: headlands, the parcels of a common field at right angles to the long strips.

capitalitium: poll money.

capitaneus: a captain.

capitare: to abut.

capite, tenere in: to hold in chief.

capitegium: a hood, a cap.

capitellum: the capital of a pillar.

capitiarius. See capicerius.

capitilavium: Palm Sunday.

capitium: a hood; a cap; the head of a bed; a headland; the east end of a church.

capitula. See capitulum.

capitulare: to divide into chapters; to make articles of agreement; to meet in chapter.

capitulariter: in chapter.

capitulum: a chapter; a chapter-house.

cappa: a mantle; a cope; a cap; the top part of a flail.

cappilegium: the strap whereby the two parts of a flail are united.

caprarius: a goatherd.

capsella: a chest.

captennium: protection; tax or homage as an acknowledgment thereof, esp. in Guienne.

captio: capture; custody; a prison; ransom.

captivus: a caitiff; a wretch; unfortunate.

captura: a weir.

caput: the first day of a month.

caputagium. See chevagium.

caputium. See capitium.

carabus: a lighter; a coracle.

caracalla: a cloak; a hood.

caracca, caracta: a carrack.

caragius: a sorcerer.

caraxare: to write.

carbonare: to make charcoal.

carbonarius: a collier.

carbonator: a charcoal burner.

carbonella: a steak.

carcannum: pillory; prison.

carcare: to load; to charge.

carcasium, carcoisium: a carcase.

cardetum: a carr, a low marshy place where alders grow.

cardinalis: a cardinal.

cardiolus: a snipe.

cardus: a card, for carding wool; a playing card.

carea: a cart.

careata: a cartload.

carecta: a cart.

carectarius: a carter.

carectata: a cartload.

careia: a cart; a load.

careium, careyum: service of carriage.

carellus: a quarel, a crossbow bolt.

carelta: a cassock.

carentinilla, carentivillus: canvas.

careta, caretta: a cart.

caretarius: a carter.

cargare: to load.

cariagium: service performed with a cart; a baggage train.

cariare: to carry.

cariatio: carriage.

carica: a fig.

carinutus: a cockney.

cariscus: an evergreen tree.

caristare: to make dear.

caristia: dearth.

caritativus: charitable.

carix: sedge.

carnarium: a charnel-house.

carnator morine: a man who slaughters sheep affected with murrain.

carnebrevium. See carniprivium.

carnellare: to crenellate; to embattle.

carnes ferinae: venison.

carnicapium: Shrove Tuesday; carnival.

carnifex: a butcher.

carnificium: a meat market.

carniprivium (carnis privium): fasting; Lent; Shrovetide.

carogium: a car which bears a standard.

carolare: to sing.

caronator, caroynator. See carnator.

carpatinae: thick boots. (O.E. okers.)

carpentagium: payment for wood-work.

carpentarium: wood-work.

carpentarius: a carpenter; a cartwright.

carpetor, carpetrix: a carder of wool.

carptare: to card.

carra: a car.

carracutium: a chariot.

carrata: a cartload; a carat.

carrea, carreia: a cartload; a cart; the right of carriage through a place.

carreta: a cartload; a carat.

carrica, carrucha: a ship of burden; a large Portuguese ship.

carrietare: to carry.

carrochium: a standard on a cart.

carruca, &c. See caruca, &c.

carta, &c. See charta.

cartallus: a creel; a hamper.

cartare: to convey by charter or by cart.

caruagium. See carucagium.

caruca: a plough; a plough team; a plough land.

carucagium: a tribute imposed on ploughs or plough-lands; liability to plough service.

carucarius: a ploughman.

carucata: a plough-land, the size of which varied. It is mentioned as containing "centum acras ad perticam nostram" (Cl. Roll. 19 H. iii. m. 8); and in the 15th cent. we find "ii. carewes and a half of lond conteynyng lxxx. acres." (E. C. P. 51, 314.) In some places it was 240 acres, or 8 oxgangs; a team of oxen sufficient to work a carucate, i.e., eight.

carucatarius: one who holds land by plough tenure.

carucator: a carter: a ploughman.

carula: a box. See karula.

carvana: a caravan.

carvela: a caravel, a sailing ship with a square poop, about 120 tons.

casale: a village.

casamentum. See casata.

casata, casatum, casatura: a house with land sufficient to maintain a family; a hide of land.

casatus: a tenant.

caseatrix: a maker of cheese.

cassare: to quash, to annul.

cassatio: nullification.

cassatus: a tenant.

cassea: a box.

cassidile: a purse, pocket, or small coffer; a gamebag, a pouch.

cassus: a case, a box.

castellania: the office of keeping a castle.

castellanus: the owner or captain of a castle.

castellaria, castellarium: the precinct or jurisdiction of a castle.

castenaria: a chestnut tree.

casto: the bezil of a ring.

castrimergus: a woodcock (scolopax rusticola).

castro: a wether.

casula: a small house or church; a chasuble; a casket (?).

casuma: cinders.

catabulum: a shed.

catacrina: the hip.

catallum: cattle; chattels; capital; principal.

catantrum: a trendle.

catapulta: a broad arrow.

catascopus: an archdeacon; a bishop.

catatista: a scolding cart.

catator: a cathunter.

catellare: to tickle.

catellarius: a pedlar.

catenare: to chain.

cathedraticum: See due, a pension paid by parochial ministers to the bishop as composition for his interest in first fruits and offerings.

cathedratus: consecrated (of a bishop).

cathenare: to chain.

cathenarius: a watchdog, a bandog.

catillare: to mew, as a cat.

cattinus: of catskin.

cattus, catus: a cat; a military engine to protect from missiles soldiers attacking the wall of a town, called in classical Latin vinea.

catzurus. See chacurus.

caucettum: a causey.

caula: a sheepfold.

caulamaula: a flute.

caulare: to fold sheep.

cauma: thatch.

cauniare. See canniare.

cautelis: careful, cautious.

cautio: a bond.

cauzea: rubble.

cavalgata: a cavalry expedition.

cavanna: an owl.

cavaria: a coin; a narrow path.

cavilla: the ancle; a peg.

cawagium: a stall, cage, pen.

caya: a quay.

caymiticus: fratricidal, murderous (from Caym, a medieval form of Cain).

cayrellus: a quarel, a crossbow bolt.

cayum: a quay.

cebum: tallow.

ceculicula: a spark.

cedula. See schedula.

celarium: a spence, a buttery, a cupboard.

celatorium: a coverlet.

celda: a chaldron, 36 bushels; the same as selda, a stall.

celdra: a chaldron.

celena ferrea: a scythe (?).

celer: the ceiler or canopy of a bed.

celeragium: cellerage, payment for storing goods in a cellar.

celia: ale made from wheat; wort.

cella: a cell; a small monastery depending on a superior house; a close stool; a saddle (sella).

cellarium: a cellar.

cellarius, cellerarius: a cellarer.

celura: a ceiler.

cementarius: a mason.

cenaculum: breakfast or luncheon; a parlour.

cenapium: mustard.

cendalum: cendal, thin silken cloth.

cendula: wood for roofing a house.

cenella: an acorn.

cenivectare: to carry in a barrow.

cenivectorium: a mudcart, a wheel-barrow.

censa: rent; farm; tax.

censaria, censeria: a rent; a farm let at a standing rent.

censarius: a farmer.

censualis: a person bound to pay a rent to a monastery or church, in return for protection.

censuarius: a farmer.

census: tax, tribute.

centena: a hundredweight; a hundred.

centenarius: a petty judge under the sheriff; a hundredor; a centener, an officer commanding 100 soldiers.

centenus, centuria: the division of a county called a hundred.

centonizare: to arrange for singing.

centuclum: cloth.

centum: sometimes used declinable in the plural.

ceola: a long boat or ship; a keel.

ceorlus: a churl.

cepa: a sand eel (?).

cepes: a hedge (sepes).

cephalia: headache.

cephalus: a blockhead.

ceppa: stocks.

ceppagium: the stump of a tree.

ceppus: a stamp.

cepum: tallow (cebum).

ceragium: waxscot, payment for the supply of candles in a church.

cercella: a teal (anas crecca. Fr. sarcelle).

cerchia: a search.

ceresum: a cherry.

cerevisia, cervisia: beer.

cerisum: a cherry.

cerna: choice; sort.

ceroferarius: a candle bearer, an acolyte.

ceroteca: a glove (chiroteca).

certificare, certiorare, certorare: to certify, to inform.

certitudinaliter: certainly.

certum letae: cert money, paid yearly by the tenants of some manors to the lord.

cerura: a mound or fence; a lock.

cerussa: white lead.

cerverettus, cervericeus, cerveritius, canis: a staghound.

cervicale: a bolster.

cervisiarius, cervisior: a brewer; a tenant who pays rent in beer.

cespitare: to stumble.

chacea: a chace; the right of hunting; a right of way for cattle, droveway.

chaceare: to hunt.

chaceatus: chased (of plate).

chacepollus. See cacepollus.

chacia: a countertally.

chacurus: a horse or hound for hunting.

chalendra. See chelindra.

chalo: a scapulary; a counterpane, a chalon.

chamberlaria: the office of chamberlain.

champertor. See campiparticeps.

chamus: a horse's bit; a headstall.

charactare, charaxare: to write.

charnarium: a charnel-house; a cemetery.

charreya: a cartload.

charta: paper; a charter.

charta partita: a charter-party.

chartare: to convey by charter.

chartula: a small charter.

chartulare: a cartulary, a register of charters.

chasor: a horse for hunting.

chatia zabuli: silting up with sand.

chaudmella: chaudmedley, much the same as chance medley.

chauma: reeds or sedge.

cheldrum: a chaldron or chaldern, 36 bushels.

chelindra: a flat boat.

cheminagium: cheminage, chiminage; a toll paid for a road through a forest.

cheminata: a chimney.

cheminus: a road; the right of carting crops through another's land.

chepingabulum: tax paid at market.

cherechsectum: church scot.

cheresettum: church scot.

cherigmannus: one whose duty it was to inspect and fix the boundaries of a manor.

cherisetum, chersettum: church scot.

cheruca: a vane, a weathercock.

cheva: a shive, the bung in which the vent peg was placed.

chevacia selionum: the heads of the furrows.

chevagium: poll money paid by villeins to their lord, "ne vocentur per capita," or on their marriage or for licence to leave his land; or to a man of power for his protection; also used for payment by the king at shrines.

chevalchia: cavalry; a cavalry expedition; military service as cavalry.

chevantia: a loan of money.

cheverillus: a cockerel; a roebuck.

cheveringus, chevero: a rafter; a joist; a chevron.

chevicia: a loan.

chevescia, cheviscae, chevitiae: heads of ploughed land, headrigs.

chevisare: to obtain by agreement.

cheviserum: a headstall.

chimenea: a chimney; a fireplace.

chimera: a riding cloak; a cope.

chiminachium, chiminagium. See cheminagium.

chiminus. See cheminus.

chintura: a strip of land.

chirographare: to grant by indenture.

chirographarius: a chirographer, writer of chirographs.

chirographum: a chirograph, a public instrument of conveyance, attested by witnesses; an indenture.

chirographus: an officer of the Common Pleas who engrosses fines.

chirotheca: a glove, a gauntlet.

chivagium: payment by nativi to their lord for liberty to leave his lordship. See chevagium.

choercere: for coercere.

chorepiscopus: a suffragan bishop.

chorista: a chorister.

chorus: the choir of a church; a crowth or crowd, a musical instrument of Wales and Scotland, played with a bow.

chrisma: consecrated oil; any ceremony at which it is used, as extreme unction.

chrismale: the cloth laid over a child's head at baptism.

chrismatorium: a chrismatory, a vessel to contain consecrated oil.

Christicola, Christianicola: a Christian.

chrotta: a crowd, a fiddle.

chursetum: church scot.

chymera: for camera.

ciborium: a canopy or ceiler over the altar; a metal vessel to contain the sacramental bread.

cibutum: a meat safe.

ciccus: for siccus.

cicer: cider.

ciffus, cifus: a cup (scyphus).

cilicium: a hair shirt.

cillaba: a table dormant.

cimbia: a churn; a fillet.

cimeria: the crest on a helmet.

cimiflo: a stoker.

ciminum: cummin.

cindalum: cendale.

cindula, scindula: shingles, lath for roofing.

cingnottus, cingnotus: a cygnet.

cingula. See cindula.

cipha: a sieve, a measure of about 5 qrs.

cipharius: a cup maker.

ciphra: a cipher.

cippus: the stocks.

circa: a watchman.

circada, circata: a fee paid to the bishop or archdeacon at his visitation; church shot, a measure of corn or other produce paid by each householder to the bishop.

circator: a person whose duty it was to to go the rounds, esp. in a cathedral or monastery.

circinatorium: a covering for the altar.

circinnare: to arrange in a circle.

circulare: to put hoops to; to turn.

circulator: a cooper; a turner.

ciricsetum: church scot.

cirografum. See chirographum.

cirotheca. See chirotheca.

cirpi: rushes.

cisara, cisera: cider.

cisimus: ermine.

cissor (scissor): a tailor; a shearman.

citherator, cithero: a harper.

citolla: a cittern.

citula: a jug.

civera, civeria: a wheelbarrow.

cives: in some cases an elected body of citizens who afterwards became aldermen.

civilista: a civil lawyer.

claccare: to clack wool, i.e., to cut off the the sheep's mark, whereby it weighs less and yields less custom.

clada, clades: a hurdle or wattle.

claia: a hurdle or wattle.

clamancia: a claim.

clamare: to claim.

clamatio: a claim.

clamator: a crier; a claimant.

clameum, clamium: a claim.

clamivus: an accuser.

clamor: complaint; demand.

clamor popularis: hue and cry.

clamum: a claim.

claretum: a liquor made of wine, honey, and spices; red wine.

clarificatio: anniversary of a saint's death.

clarigarius armorum: a herald.

clario: a trumpet.

classatorium: a clapper.

classicum: a peal of bells.

clates: a hurdle or wattle.

clatravus: a latch.

clatrum: an enclosure.

clausa: a clause.

clausella: a closet.

clausicula: a closet.

clausio: fortification.

claustralis: living in a cloister.

claustraliter: in convent manner.

claustrum: the precinct of a monastery; the cloister.

claustura: brushwood used for fencing, &c.

clausum: a close.

clausum Pasca or Paschae: the Close of Easter, the Sunday after Easter, Low Sunday.

clausum Pentecostes: Trinity Sunday.

clausura: an enclosure.

clavia, clava: a club or mace.

clavica: a privy (cloaca).

clavicula: a notch, a nock.

clavigarius: a lorriner, a bit maker.

clavinarius: a keeper of keys (?).

clavis. See clavium, clavus.

clavium: a clove.

clavus: a clove, a weight used for wool and other goods, 7 lbs. or 8 lbs.

clawa: a close of land.

claya: a hurdle or wattle.

clea, cleda, cleia: a hurdle or wattle.

clenodium: a jewel, a present.

clericatura: the status of clergyman; clergy.

clericus: a clerk, a clergyman.

clerimonia: an assembly of the canons of a cathedral or of the members of a convent; religion; sobriety.

cleronomus: an heir.

clerus: the clergy; a clerk.

cleya, clida: a hurdle or wattle.

clipsadra: a waterclock (clepsydra).

clito: a prince; an aetheling.

clitorium: a clicket; a latch.

clitunculus. See clito.

clittum: a tire for a wheel. See clutium.

cloca, clocha: a bell; a cloak.

clocarium: a belfry.

clocherium: a belfry.

clostura. See claustura.

cluarium: a forge.

clucetta: a clicket.

clunabulum: a dagger, worn at the side.

clusa: a sluice; a fish stew; a monastery; a pass between mountains.

clustella: a lock of hair.

clutarium: a forge.

clutium, clutum: a shoe; a horse-shoe; the tire for a wheel, or perhaps knobs to serve the same purpose.

clutus: a cloth; a clout.

cnipulus: a knife, a short sword.

cnolla: a knoll, the top of a hill.

cnusticium: a rivet.

coadunare: to collect.

coagulatorium: a churn.

cobba: a cobloaf; a bun.

cocarius: a cook.

coccula: a coarse woolen blanket or mantle.

coconellus: a cockney.

cocula: a cogue, a drinking-cup in form of a boat.

codificatio: repairs.

codrinus: poor.

coenobium: a convent.

cofa: a cup.

cofata: a cupful.

cofeoffatus: a joint feoffee.

coffera: a coffer.

cofferarius: a cofferer.

coffinum, coffinus: a coffer; a coffin.

coffra, cofrum: a coffer.

coga, cogga: a cock-boat or coggle, a small sailing-boat.

cogniare: to coin.

cognitio: homage; cognisance; armorial bearings.

cognitor: a judge; an informer.

cogo. See coga.

cohuagium: a toll paid at a market or fair.

coifa: a coif, the head-dress worn by serjeants-at-law.

coigniare: to coin; to stamp.

coinagium. See cunagium.

cokettum: a custom-house seal; a receipt for the payment of custom.

cokettus: cocket bread, a superior, but not the finest sort.

cokilla: a shell.

cokinus: an inferior servant.

coksetus: a coxswain.

colarium: a collar.

colatorium: a sieve; a colander.

colera: a collar.

colerettus: a necklace.

colerium: a collar.

colibertus: a tenant in socage.

colideus: a Culdee.

colingaria. See coningeria.

collactanea: a fostermother.

collardum. See cuillardum, cullardus.

collare: a ruff.

collarius: carying a load on the neck.

collationare: to collate.

collecta: a collection.

collectaneus: a companion.

collectare, collectarium: a book containing collects.

collistrigium: a pillory.

colobium: a tunic without, or with short, sleeves; a tabard.

colonellus: a colonel.

color: rhyme.

colorare: to rhyme.

colpicium: a pole.

colpo: a fragment; a small wax candle.

columbare: a dovecote.

columbaria: putlog holes.

columbarius: a keeper of pigeons.

columbella: a pigeon.

colustrum: new milk.

comba: a combe, valley.

combustio: trial of money at the Exchequer.

comes: an ealdorman; a count; an earl.

comestio: dinner.

comitatio, comitatus: a county; a county court.

comitiva: a company.

commandare. See commendare.

commarchia: a frontier.

commater, commatrix: used for the relationship between one who has held a child at baptism and the mother, O.E. gomm; a godmother.

commenda: a deposit; when a benefice is given to a layman, or to a clerk for a time, it is said to be given in commendam; a commandry, a benefice in the order of the knights of St. John.

commendare: to lend, to deposit; to order; to put oneself under the protection of another.

commendatarius: one who holds a living in commendam.

commendatitius: of commendation, esp. literae.

commendatus: a person who puts himself under the protection of his superior by doing voluntary homage.

commensale: board; diet; commons.

commensalis: a fellow-boarder, fellow-commoner.

commensare: to begin.

commissarius: a commissary, one who exercises spiritual jurisdiction by commission of a bishop.

commissio: a commission.

commissionarius: one who acts by commission; a commissioner.

commonitio: summons.

commorancia: dwelling, residence.

commothum: a commote, a quarter, or some say a half of a cantred.

communa: common land or property; right of common; commons; a community; a fiscal regulation.

communantia: the communance, the folk having the right of common.

communare: to enjoy the right of common.

communaris: a fellow-citizen.

communarius, communiarius: a commoner.

communes: commons at a college or Inn of Court.

communia: a corporation or community.

communia (pl.): commonalty; commons; ordinary business of a court.

communiae: commons.

communiare: to have right of common.

communicare: to have right of common.

communis clericus: common clerk, or clerk of the commons, now called town clerk.

communis pasture: common of pasture.

communitas: commonalty; sometimes all the citizens, but in this case usually communitas civium.

communitas civitatis: the commonalty of the city, the court or council.

comortha: a collection, especially that made at marriages, and when a priest said his first mass.

comothus. See commothum.

compagator: a suffragan bishop.

companagium: anything eaten with bread; the right of having meals together.

comparticeps, compartionarius: a copartner.

compassare: to compass.

compater: a godfather.

compausare: to cease, to rest.

compellare: to cite; to accuse; to compel.

compellativus: an accuser.

compertorium: a judicial inquest in the civil law made by delegates.

compestralis. See campestralis.

compestratus. See campestratus.

complectorium, completorium: compline, about 7 p.m.; supper.

complicatorium: a counting board, a counter.

compostiare: to manure.

compostum: manure.

compotus: an account.

comptista: an accountant.

compurgator: one who swears to another's innocence.

computatorium: a counter, a reckoning board; the Counter, the name of two prisons in the Poultry and Wood Street.

computoria: a counting-house.

computorium. See computatorium.

computorum rotulator: a comptroller.

computus: an account.

conalis murus: a gable wall.

concelamentum: concealment.

concelare: to conceal.

concelatio: concealment.

concelator: a concealer, a man who finds out concealed lands.

concernere: to belong; to concern.

concides: felled trees.

conclave: a parlour.

concubiculum, concubile: a bed for two.

condare: to give at the same time.

condictum: a mandate, an edict; a tribunal, a court.

condigena: a fellow-countryman.

condorsum: a ridge or low hill (?).

conductarius: a man employed on water works.

conductus: a conduit.

conductus, salvus: a safe-conduct.

condulus: a buzzard (buteo vulgaris).

conduus: a pear tree, esp. Quarendon.

conestabulus, conestabilis: a constable.

confinium: a boundary.

confiscare: to confiscate.

confortamen: comfort.

confraga: breaking down trees.

confratria: brotherhood; conspiracy.

confrustare, confrustrare: to break in pieces.

congius: a measure containing about a gallon and a pint.

congrua, congrus: a conger (conger vulgaris).

coninga: a rabit; a rabbit skin.

coningeria: a rabbit warren.

conjecturare: to guess.

conjunctorius: a joiner.

conquestare: to acquire, to conquer.

conquestus: property acquired (by inheritance or conquest or otherwise).

conquinare: to defile.

conredium. See corredium.

conscisorium: a guidon, a small standard.

consequentia: a precedent.

considerare: to decree; to award.

consistorium: a council or assembly of ecclesiastical persons, or place of justice in a spiritual court; a seat at table; a meal.

conspicatio: cleaning.

constabilia: ward.

constabilis: a constable.

constabularia: the office of constable.

constabularius: a constable.

constuma: custom.

consuetudinarius: customary; a custumal, a book containing the rites of divine offices, or the customs of a monastery; a man subject to feudal services.

consuetudo: custom, used, as the English word, for a payment imposed on merchandise.

consuetura: use.

consulator: a counsel, a councillor, used especially in Guienne.

consultarius: a councillor.

contenementum: freehold land attached to a man's dwelling-house; what is necessary for a man's maintenance.

contentare: to pay; to denote.

conthoralis: husband or wife.

contiguare: to be near.

contra: against, i.e. in time for.

contrabreve: a counter writ.

contrada: a country.

contrafacere: to imitate, to counterfeit.

contrafactor: an imitator, a forger.

contrafactura: a counterfeit.

contraiare: to oppose.

contramandatum: a lawful excuse which a defendant alleges by attorney, to show that the plaintiff has no cause of complaint.

contramurale: an outwork.

contraplacitum: a counter-plea.

contrapositio: a plea or answer.

contrariare: to oppose.

contrariparius: a corrival, a dweller on the opposite bank; a beater on the opposite side of a river when hawking.

contrarotulatio: comptrolment.

contrarotulator: a comptroller.

contrarotulum: a counter-roll.

contrata: a country.

contratallia: a counter-tally.

contratalliator: a counter-talleyer.

contrivare: to contrive.

controfacere: to counterfeit.

contus: a pestle.

conus: a corner.

conveancia: conveyance.

conveare: to convey.

conveiancia: a conveyance.

convenire: to summon, to convene.

conventinare: to covenant.

conventio: a covenant.

conventionare: to covenant.

conversus: a lay monk, lay brother; a converted Jew or Mahommedan.

conviator: a fellow traveller.

convitiare: to rail at.

cooperlectorium: a coverlet.

coopero. See coprones.

coopertia, coopertio: bark and broken wood of felled trees.

coopertor: a tiler; a thatcher.

coopertorium: a coverlet; a roof; a cuirass.

coopertum: covert.

coopertura: a covert; a cuirass; coverture, the condition of a married woman; thatch.

coopertus equus: a barded horse.

coopicium: coppice.

copa: a cop of corn, "sc. xx. garbae" (Sussex); of peas, 15 or 16 sheaves.

coparcenaria: comparcenary.

coparticeps: a coparcener.

copecia: coppice.

copero. See coprones.

coperosa: copperas.

copertorium. See coopertorium.

copertum: cover for game.

cophinus: a coffer; a coffin.

copia: a copy.

copiare: to copy.

copicia: a coppice.

copla: a couple.

copo: twigs.

coppa. See copa.

coppatus: coppice.

coprones: twigs.

copucium: a coppice.

copula: a couple for hounds; a joist; a tiebeam.

coqua. See coga.

coquarius: a cook.

coquinarius: the kitchen steward in a monastery.

coragium: a tribute of certain measures (corus) of corn; or perhaps the same as cornagium.

coralius: a currier.

corarius: a currier.

corballum, corbella: a basket.

corbanus: a rural dean (plebanus) in Ireland.

corbellus: a corbel, a projecting piece of timber to support a weight.

corbio: a basket maker.

corbis: a hive.

corbona: a priest's treasury or strong box.

corda: a cord; a measure of land, 22 feet; a cord of wood, 8 or 10 feet by 4 feet by 4 feet.

cordarius: a rope maker.

cordebanarius, corduanerius: a cordwainer.

cordelatus: corded.

corderius: a rope maker.

cordewana, corduana: cordwain, Cordovan leather.

corduanarius: a cordwainer.

cordula: a string.

corerius: a courier.

coretes: weirs. (Welsh, cored.)

corgigatorium: a churn.

corigia, corigium. See corrigia.

coriletum: a hazel copse.

corluvus: a curlew (numenius arquata).

cormusa. See cornamusa.

cornagium: cornage, horngeld, payment for right to graze cattle on moor or common; a rent or tax paid on oxen.

cornamusa: a cornemuse, a Cornish bagpipe.

cornare: to blow a horn.

cornarius: a horner; a horn blower.

cornellatus. See carnellare.

cornera, corneria, cornerium: a corner.

cornicallus: a corn on the foot.

corniculare: to blow a horn.

cornisare, cornuare: to blow a horn.

corodium, &c. See corredium.

coronale: a wreath, a crown.

coronamentum: coronation.

coronare: to crown; to make a person a priest; to perform the tonsure.

coronarius: a coroner.

coronatio: coronation.

coronator: a coroner.

coronellus: a colonel.

coronix: a cornice.

corositas: rottenness.

corporale, corporarium: a corporas.

corpus castri: the castle without the surrounding town, &c.

corralius: a currier.

correctarius: a licensed broker.

corrediarius: the holder of a corrody. See corredium.

corredium, corridium: a corrody, money or allowance due by a monastery to the founder for the maintenance of one of his servants; an allowance of any kind; a livery.

corrigia: a strip of land, leather, &c.; a girdle; a shoe latchet.

corrigiarius: a girdler.

corrodium. See corredium.

cortina: a curtain.

cortinarius: a curtain maker. See cortinetus.

cortinatus: curtained.

cortinetus: a man in charge of the king's tents.

cortis: a courtyard.

cortularium: a farmyard.

corulus: hazel.

corus: a corn measure, perhaps 8 bushels.

corusta: used for chorista.

corvata, corveia: compulsory work done by tenant for lord.

corversarius, corvisarius: a cordwainer; a cobbler.

cosduma: custom.

costa: a rib, a side; a basket; cost.

costamentum: cost.

costera: coast.

costerillum: a flagon.

costillagium: a rent in the Channel Islands.

costiterunt: they cost.

costrellus: a drinking cup, often of wood.

costula: clove (of garlic, &c.).

costuma: custom.

cota: a cot; a tunic; a hat; a sheepcote.

cotagium: a cottage, originally meant the land attached to a cot.

cotarius: a cotter.

cotellus: a cottage.

coterellus: a servile tenant; a bandit.

coteria, coterium: a cottage.

cotmannus: a cottager.

cotsethla: a cottage, a small farmhouse.

cotsethus, cotsetlus, cotsetellus: a cottager.

cotuca: a cloak; coat armour.

couperagium: cooper's work.

coupiator: a woodman.

courba. See corvata.

courearius: a currier.

courtepia: a courtepye, a short cloak.

covina, covinia: covin, a compact for purposes of fraud.

covinosus: fraudulently.

craantare. See creantare.

craiera: a crayer, or smack.

crampo: a crampon, a grappling iron, or metal fastening in jewellery.

cranagium: liberty to use a crane; profit made by a crane.

cranare: to lift goods with a crane.

crannocum: a crannock, a measure of corn; a basket.

crariolus: a rake.

craspiscis: a whale.

crassipulum: a cresset.

cratera: a chest or coffin.

craticula: a gridiron; a lattice.

cratis: a wattle; a crate.

cravare: to impeach.

creancia: credit.

creantare: to give security for.

creantum: security.

creca, crecca: a creek.

credentia: faith, belief; a small table to hold the vessels of the altar.

crementum: increase.

cremium: refuse tallow.

crenellare. See carnellare.

creputellus: a cracknel.

crescens: a crescent.

cressans: a crescent.

cresta: the crest of a bank.

crestare murum: to complete the top of a wall with coping stones.

crestura: coping; the ridge of a roof.

cretena, cretinus: a torrent.

crevacia: a crevice, a crack.

crevina: increase (?).

crimisinum: crimson.

crinium: the skull.

cristianare: to convert to Christianity.

crocardus: a crocard, bad money, prohibited by statute 27 Edw. I.

croccus: a crowbar.

crocea, crocia: a crook; a crosier; investiture of episcopal sees; dress worn by regular canons.

crociarius: a cross-bearer.

crocus: a crook.

croeria: a shrike (lanius excubitor).

croffeta, crofta, croftum: a croft; a close.

cromio: a strap. (Fr. creim.)

cronarius: a man in charge of farm stock.

cronnus: a measure of four bushels.

cropa, croppa, croppus: a crop; twigs.

crotia. See crocea.

crotta: a crowd, a fiddle.

crucesignatus: a crusader; one who has taken the cross.

crucibulum: a cresset.

crucifer: a Crossed or Crutched Friar.

crufta: a croft.

cruppa: a horse's croup.

crupparium: a crupper.

crusiatus: having taken the cross.

crustare: to daub; to plaster.

crustum: embossed plate.

crux: sometimes used for crus.

crypta: a chapel or oratory under ground.

cubare: to lie down.

cubicare: to go to bed.

cucneus. See cuneus.

cuculla, cucullus: a long, full garment without sleeves; a cape; a cowl.

cucullatus: wearing a cowl; a monk.

cufa: a cup.

cufata: a cupful.

cuillarda: a chilver, a ewe lamb.

cuillardum: a spoonful, ladleful.

culagium: placing a ship in dock; keelage.

culcitra: a cushion, a bed.

Culdeus: a Culdee, clergy in Scotland and Ireland from the 6th to 11th centuries whose chief place was Iona.

culigna: bellows.

cullardus: a wether (?).

culmus: sometimes used for culmen.

cultellarius: a cutler.

culvertagium: confiscation; servitude.

cumba: a coomb, a measure of corn, 4 bushels.

cumbla: a roof; a ridge.

cumgruus: a conger.

cumelingus: comeling, i.e. newly arrived, used of cattle.

cumillia: equality (?).

cuminum: cummin.

cumulus: the chancel of a church; vaulting; a straw-rick or pook of corn.

cuna: coin.

cunagium: coinage; stamp.

cunare, cuneare: to coin.

cuneragium: some toll.

cunere: to coin.

cuneus: a stamp; a coinage; a mint.

cunicularium: a rabbit warren.

cuniculus: a coney, a rabbit.

cuningeria: a rabbit warren.

cuninus: a rabbit.

cupa: a cup.

cuparius: a cooper.

cupatorium: a vat.

cuperagium: cooperage.

cuperius: a cooper.

cuppa: a ship of burden; a lighter; a cup.

cupperius: a cooper.

curagulus: a caretaker.

curallum: coral; some kind of corn or meal.

curator: an attorney in ecclesiastical cases.

curatus: careful; a clergyman in charge; with cure of souls (of a benefice).

curba: some piece of timber.

curcula: a cable.

curda: a measure used for spices.

curetarius: a curator; an examiner.

curia: a court; frequently used for curia Romana, meaning simply Rome.

curialis, littera: court hand.

curialitas: courtesy.

currifrugium: a riddle, a sieve.

cursalis: current.

cursaria. See cursoria.

curserius: a courser (horse).

curso: a ridge of land.

cursor: a courier; a crier.

cursoria: a swift ship.

curta. See curtis.

Curtana: Curteyn, the name of the sword of Edward the Confessor.

curtena: a curtain.

curtilagium: a curtilage, a courtyard or piece of land near a house.

curtiles terrae: court lands; demesne lands.

curtillum. See curtilagium.

curtina: a curtain.

curtinatus: curtained.

curtis, curtus: a court; a courtyard; a house and farm; a pound, a pinfold.

curtisanus: a courtier.

curuca: a carrack, a large Portuguese ship.

cussina: a cushion.

custa, custagium, custamentum, custantia: cost.

custamentum: sometimes used for custodia.

custare: to cost.

custodes bonorum ecclesiae: churchwardens.

custodia: wardship; a ward of a town.

custuma: custom.

custumannus: a customary tenant.

custumare: to assess for payment of custom; to pay custom.

custumarius: customary; subject to payment of custom; a collector of customs.

custus: cost.

cutellarius: a cutler.

cutellus: a knife.

cuteus: of skin.

cuva: a vat.

cuvarius: a cooper.

cyclas: a long garment, close at the top and wide below.

cylicium: a hair shirt.

cyrenarumpilus: sealskin.

cyrographum, &c. See chirographum.

cyula: a ship.


dacra, daker.
See dicra.

dadus: a die.

daeria: a dairy.

dagus: a dais.

daia: a dairymaid, or man.

daiera: a dairy.

daila, dailus: a ditch; a certain measure of land.

daimeretta. See damerettus.

daina: a bushel; a day's work.

dalmatica: a dalmatic, a deacon's vestment; a tunicle.

dalus. See daila.

dama: a buck or doe.

damerettus, damericius: a hound used for fallow deer.

damisella. See domicella.

damma: a dam.

dammus: a buck.

damnum: damage.

damus: a buck.

danegildum: danegeld.

dangeria: a payment made by forest tenants for liberty to plough and sow during pannage time, lessilver, or lefsilver.

dapifer: a sewer; a steward of the household; a cellarer; a bailiff of a manor.

dapiferatus: stewardship.

dapiscida: a carver.

dapsiferus: festal.

dapsilitas: an act of liberality.

dardus: a dart.

darsis: some kind of fish.

data: the date of a document.

datarius: a datary, an officer of the Roman chancery.

datilis, dattilus: a date (fruit).

datium: tribute; tax.

dauberium: plaster work, dab.

davata: a "daywercke," or four perches.

daya: a dairyman, or maid.

dayaria, dayeria: a dairy.

dayla. See daila.

deadvocare: to disavow; to refuse; to give up a suit.

deafforestare: to disafforest, to bring forest land into cultivation.

dealbare: to whiten.

dealbatio: a white dress worn by a candidate or novice.

dealbator: a whitewasher, dauber.

deambulatorium: an ambulatory.

dearestare: to free from arrest.

deawarennare: to dis-warren.

debata, debatum: a debate, a dispute.

debatabilis: debateable.

debere: sometimes means "is supposed to."

debilis: worn.

debitatus: indebted.

debriare: to intoxicate; to inundate.

debriatus: drunk.

decaisatus: decayed.

decalcare: to whiten.

decanatus: a deanery.

decania, decenna: a deanery; a tithing; a friburgh.

decanica: an ecclesiastical prison.

decanus: a dean; a borsholder, chief of the friburgh; a dozenner, a tithing man.

decarnellatus: having the crenellation destroyed.

decasus: decay.

decaudare: to dock the tail.

decena. See decania.

decendium: a period of ten days.

decenna: a tithing.

decennaria: the jurisdiction of a tithing-man.

decennarius: a tithing-man, a dozenner.

decimabilis: titheable.

decimae: tithes.

decimare: to tithe.

decimatio: tithes; paying a tenth part.

decimus primus: eleventh.

decipula: a trap, a snare.

decius: a die.

decolpare: to cut down.

decostare, decosticere: to cost.

decretales: decretals, papal letters containing decrees, or on matters in which the popes were consulted.

decretista: a person learned in the Decretals.

decretum: a decree, especially of the pope.

decrustare: to strip off.

decuria: a tithing.

decuriare: to bring into order; to try (?).

decurio: a rural dean; a tithing-man.

dedilectio: loss of affection.

deductus: game; hunt.

defalcare: to weaken; to deduct.

defalta: default; negligence.

defeasancia: defeasance, a condition relating to a deed on the performance of which the deed is void.

defendere: to prohibit; to refuse.

defensa: a fenced park, an enclosure.

defensabilis: easily defended.

defensare: to defend.

defensio: a prohibition.

defensiva: fortification.

defenso, in: in defence; of ground, enclosed for a time.

defensum: an enclosure; a prohibition.

defensus: custody.

deferrare: to unshoe a horse.

defesancia. See defeasancia.

defetus: exhausted (effetus).

defigurare: to disguise.

deflorare: to pick flowers.

deforciamentum: deforcement, illegal occupation of property.

deforciare: to deforce.

deforciatio: holding goods in satisfaction for debt.

deforciator: a deforcer.

deforestare. See deafforestare.

deforis: outside.

defustare: to beat, to cudgel.

degelare: to thaw.

degistatus: without joists.

degradus: stairs.

deguttare: to drop on; to pour over.

deia: a dairyman, or maid.

deimericius. See damerettus.

deis, deisium: a dais. See dagus.

deiwerca: a day-work, or four perches.

dekernellatus: having the crenellation destroyed.

delatura: an accusation.

delia: some metal found in Derbyshire.

delicius: "a cokeney."

demanda: a demand.

demandare: to demand; to cite.

demanium, demenium. See dominium.

demembrare: to dismember.

demorare: to govern.

demorari: to demur.

demullare: to dread.

dena: a glen; a coppice.

denariata, denariatus: a pennyworth.

denariata terrae: land worth a penny per annum, varying from one perch to one acre.

denariis, in: in coin.

denarius: a penny; a pennyweight, i.e., 32 grains of wheat from the middle of the ear.

denbera: a pasture for pigs (swinecombe).

denerata: a pennyworth.

denizatus: a denizen.

denna. See dena.

densescere: to grow thick.

dentes: gratings.

dentrix: a pike (esox lucius).

deobligatio: a release.

deodanda, deodandum: an animal or thing forfeited for having caused a person's death.

deosculatorium: a tablet handed round to be kissed at mass, a pax.

departura: a departure.

depersonare: to insult; to degrade.

depictare: to paint an image of.

depositio: the death of a saint, not a martyr.

depreculae: beads.

derationare. See disrationare.

derobare: to rob, to plunder.

desamparare: to yield, to release.

descus: a dais.

desicut: as.

despitus: a contemptible person.

desponsalia: a betrothal.

destitutio: deprival (of an office).

destrarius. See dextrarius.

desubitare: to attack suddenly.

detachiare: to seize goods by attachment.

de tallia: retail.

deteriare: for deteriorare.

detesticulare: to castrate.

detius: a die.

detractari: to be torn in pieces by horses.

detunicare: to discover.

devadiatus: without sureties.

devadimonizare: to redeem from pledge.

deverium: duty.

devestire: to give up possession.

devillare: to leave town.

devisamentum: a devise; a device.

devisare: to devise; to bequeath.

devisatio, devisum: a devise.

dextrale: a bracer, a vambrace or wardbrace. (Fr. gardebras.)

dextrare: to turn to the right; to walk on the right of.

dextrarius: a war horse, a charger.

deya. See daia.

deyla. See daila.

diaconatus: the office of deacon.

diaconus: a deacon.

diapretus. See diasperatus.

diarium: daily food.

diasperatus: of various colours; diapered.

diatim: daily.

dica: a tally; a deed; foolish talking.

diccus: a dike.

dicenarius. See decennarius.

dicra: a dicker, ten skins or pairs of gloves, ten bars of iron.

dictator: a person charged with the duty of considering and redressing infractions of a peace or truce; an umpire.

dictor: an umpire. See dictator.

dieta: a day's journey; an assembly; regimen; diet, i.e., the daily scrapings of metal in taking assays at Goldsmiths' Hall, which were periodically melted up; a daywork of land.

diffacere: to maim, to destroy.

diffagium: neglect.

difficultas: a tax.

diffidare: to defy; to renounce allegiance to; to warn off.

diffodere: to dig up.

difforciare: to deforce.

difusculus: diffuse.

digitale: a thimble.

digitare: to point at.

dignarium: a dinner.

dilatura: an accusation (delatura).

diligiatus: outlawed.

dimidicare: to halve.

dimidietas: a half, a moiety.

dimissio: demise, making over properties by lease or will.

dimissoriae literae: letters from a bishop for the ordination of a person in another diocese.

dioecesis: a diocese.

dirationare. See disrationare.

diribare: to take away.

dirmatia: for A.S. deornett, a hunting net (?).

disadvocare: to deny, to disavow.

disboscatio: bringing woods into cultivation.

discantus: a chant.

discare: to make dishes.

discarcare, discargare, discariare, discaricare, discarkare: to unlade, to discharge.

discifer: a sewer; a steward.

disclamare: to renounce a claim.

disclausus: open.

disconfortare: to cause uneasiness to.

discontinuare: to cease attendance.

discopulare: to uncouple; to let loose.

discrasia: a disease.

discredencia: unbelief, misbelief.

discrimen: the parting of the hair.

discus: a dish; a desk.

disfacere: to dismember, to mutilate.

disforceare. See deforciare.

disgerbigator: a haymaker.

disgradare: to take away a man's rank.

dishabilitare: to disable.

disheritor: one who deprives another of his inheritance.

diskippagium: unshipping.

disonerare: to discharge.

disparagare: to disparage; to marry to an inferior.

disparagatio: disparagement, marrying an heir or heiress below their degree.

dispensa: a warehouse.

dispensarius, dispensator: a steward.

dispensatorium: a steward's room.

dispersonare: to insult; to degrade.

displicare: to display.

disportum: amusement, sport.

disratiocinare. See disrationare.

disrationamentum: deraignment; proof.

disrationare: to prove; to deraign.

disrobare, disrobbare: to plunder.

dissaisina, disseisina: an unlawful dispossessing a man of his land; disseisin.

dissaisire, disseisire: to dispossess; to disseise.

dissaisitor, disseisitor: a disseisor.

dissignare: to break open a seal.

dissimulare: to refuse; to delay.

dissipare: to disappear, to scatter themselves.

distemperantia: disease.

distigius: a distych.

distillare: to drop; to distil.

distonatio: discord.

distreniatus: rigorous.

districtae: a strait; a defile.

districtio: distress.

districtus: tax; fine; territory.

distrigiare: to stride.

distringere: to distrain.

distringibilis: liable to distress.

disturbancia, disturbatio: disturbance.

disturbare: to send away; to disturb.

disvadiare: to receive or to redeem a pledge.

diurnalis: as much land as can be ploughed in one day with one ox.

diurnare: to pass the time; to remain; to journey.

divadiare. See disvadiare.

dividenda: a dividend.

divisa: a device; a devise; a boundary; a dole.

divisibilis murus: a party wall.

doageria: a dowager.

doarium. See dotarium.

dobelettum: a doublet.

docillus: a faucet.

docinna, documa: a tithing, error for decenna.

dodarium. See dotarium.

dola: a portion, a dole; a faucet.

dolare: to distribute.

dolea. See dola.

doleum: a tun (dolium); also used for a hogshead.

dolfinus: the Dauphin.

domanium. See dominicum.

domesticus: of the same house (monastery).

domicella, domicilla: a young lady; a servant; a nun.

domicellus: the young son of a nobleman; in the Roman Court, the same as camerarius; a servant in a monastery.

domifex: a carpenter.

domigerium: danger; power.

domina: a lady; a dame.

dominatio: a demesne.

dominatus: lordship.

dominica: Sunday.

dominici panni: Sunday clothes.

dominicum: a demesne.

dominicus: of a lord; used on Sunday.

dominicus panis: bread used at the Mass.

dominigerium. See domigerium.

dominium: lordship.

dominus: a title applied to a peer, to a lord of a manor, to a clergyman, and to a bachelor of arts.

domnus, dompnus: a contraction of dominus, used especially for clergymen.

donatissia: as a gift.

donativum: a benefice given by the patron without presentation or institution.

donator, donatorius: a donor.

donatus: a donee.

doracus: a john-dory (zeus faber).

dormiens mensa: a table dormant, a fixed table.

dorrea: a john-dory.

dorsale, dossale: a dorser, dorsal, dossal, tapestry hung against a wall, especially a cloth hung above an altar; a packsaddle.

dorsamentum: used for endorsamentum.

dorsorium: a dosser, a basket to carry on the back. See dorsale.

dortorium: a dormitory, dortour.

dos: a dowry, sometimes dower.

dosserium. See dorsorium.

dotalicium: dower.

dotarium: a dower, the portion of a widow or wife.

dotata, dotissa: a dowager.

dracena: a tiller.

dragetum, dragium: drage, a coarse kind of corn.

dragma: an ornament; a gem.

drana: a drain, a watercourse.

draparius: a draper; a standard bearer.

drappus: cloth.

draschium, drascium: draff; malt; grains.

drathium: draff.

drava: a drove.

draya: a dray.

drecca. See drana.

drengagium: the tenure by which drengi held.

drengus: a drench, the name given to certain military tenants who were put out of their lands at the Conquest and afterwards restored.

dressorium: a dresser; a cupboard.

dreva: a thrave of corn, 12 or 24 sheaves.

dreya: a dray.

droitura: right.

dromo, dromunda: a dromound, a long, swift ship for passengers; a warship, larger than a galley.

drovia: a drove.

droviare: to drive cattle.

drowa: a drove.

druggeria: a druggist's shop.

duaria: jointure; dowry.

dubbare: to dub, i.e., to beat cloth with teazles to raise the nap.

dubbator: a dubber.

duca: a mould; a last.

ducatus: a dukedom; a ducat, first coined in the duchy of Apulia; a safe-conduct.

ducillarius, ductillarius: a tapster.

ducillus: a stopple.

ducissa: a duchess.

ductillus: a tap.

ductor canis: a lymehound.

duellio: a champion; a duel.

duellium, duellum: trial by battle.

dukketta: a ducat.

dumbula maris: seaweed (?).

duna: a down, or hill.

dunio: a dungeon.

dunnarium, dunnum: a down.

duodena: a dozen; a jury of twelve men.

duplachium: error for duploytum, a cloak (?).

duplicatus: lined.

duploma: a document with a counterpart; a hasty journey, two days' stages in one day (diploma).

duribuccus: a slow speaker.

duritia: duress.

dux: a duke.

dygnarium, dygnerium: dinner.

dytenum: a ditty, or song.


an alehouse (A.S. ealahus).

ealhorda: the right of assising and selling ale and beer.

eastintus: the east coast, or the eastern side of a place.

ebba: ebb.

ebdomada: a week.

ebdomadarius: a canon of a cathedral church, appointed weekly to take charge of the choir; a priest appointed for weekly duty in a monastery.

ebiculum: the back of an edged tool.

ebrietor: a drunkard.

ecclesia: a church.

edestium: a building.

edia: help; ease; food.

educamen: a brood of chickens.

efforcialiter: by force of arms; forcibly; in force.

efforciamentum: distraint; inquisition.

efforciare: to fine; to distrain; to compel; to fortify; to defend.

effugare: to drive or hunt out.

egeator: the skipper of a ship.

eia: an island, an evot.

einescia, eilnecia. See esnecia.

eisiamentum. See aisiamentum.

ejectum: jetsom, wreck.

ela: an aisle.

elargamentum: liberation; increase.

elargare: to set free; to put off; to increase.

elargatio: liberation.

elbidus, elbus: russet.

eleemosyna: alms.

eleemosynaria: an act of donation; a place where alms are distributed; the office of almoner.

eleemosynarius: an almoner.

elemosina libera, pura, et perpetua: frankalmoign.

elemosinare: to grant in alms, or in frankalmoign.

elemosinarium: an almonry; an almery, an aumbrey.

elephantia: leprosy.

elongare: to remove to a distance: to eloign.

eluvio: a sewer.

emarcidus: withered.

embassaria, embaxaria: an embassy.

embaxator: an ambassador.

embaxatura: an embassy.

emenda: amends; a fine.

emendare: to make amends; to correct; to restore.

emendatio: the power of correction; the right of assize; a fine; repair.

emigranea: megrim, migraine.

emissarium: a sluice.

emissarius: a stallion.

emolare: to grind tools.

emologare: to confirm.

emphyteusis: a lease in perpetuity or for a long term.

emphyteuta, emphyteota: the holder of such a lease.

emprisa: an enterprise.

emprumptum: a loan.

emunitas: for immunitas.

enamelare: to enamel.

enarnatio: flogging.

encaustum: ink.

encrochiare: to encroach.

endorsamentum: an endorsement.

endorsare: to endorse.

endroma: rough cloth, falding.

endurare: to endure.

energumenus: possessed by an evil spirit.

enfranchiatus: enfranchised.

engleceria: Englishry; being an Englishman.

engleria. See engleceria.

engrallatus: ingrailed, with curved indentations (heraldic).

engrossare. See ingrossare.

enitia. See esnecia.

enquesta: an inquisition.

ensaisinare: to put in possession; to give seisin.

enterclausum: a screen (?).

entrare: to enter; to enter in a book.

epicaligae: overshoes or boots.

epimenium: a monthly present, or expense.

episcopalia: synodals or other payments by the clergy to the bishop.

episcopare: to make a bishop; to act as a bishop.

episcopatus: a bishopric.

episcopium: a bishopric; a bishop's palace.

episcopus: a bishop.

epistolare: a service-book containing the epistles.

epitilium: a birdbolt.

epitogium: a gown.

equalens: a corrupted form of equivalens.

eques: a knight.

equicium: a ruler.

equillus: a hackney.

equitarius: on horseback; horse, as applied to a carriage or plough, &c.

equitator: a rider, a forest officer.

equitatura: a riding or baggage horse; cavalry; knighthood.

equitibia: the hock of a horse.

equitium: a stud of horses.

equivalentia: equality.

eramentarium: a saltpan.

eremita: a hermit.

eremitorium: a hermitage.

eremodicium: a non-suit.

erifilum: brass wire.

eriquia. See hericius.

ermina: ermine.

ernasium. See harnesium.

erodius: a gerfalcon (falco islandicus).

erpica: a harrow.

erra: a pledge (arrha).

errarius cygnus: a nesting swan (?).

erraticum: a waif or stray.

erthmiotum: a court held on the boundary of two lands.

erubiginator: a writer of rubrics; a painter in red.

eruginator: a furbisher.

esbrancatura: cutting off branches; lopping.

escaere: to escheat; to claim as escheated.

escaeta: an escheat; a fallen branch; entrails.

escaetatio: escheat.

escaetator, escaetor: an escheator.

escaetria: escheatorship.

escaetus: escheated.

escaldare: to scald.

escambiare: to exchange.

escambiator: an exchanger, money changer.

escambio, escambium: exchange; a place for changing money.

escangia, escangium: exchange.

escantio: a butler, a cup bearer.

escapiare: to escape from arrest.

escapium: escape; a thing that comes by chance.

escaptara: escape.

escarius: a carver.

escarleta, escarletum: scarlet.

escarta. See scarta.

escaudare: to scald.

escawardus: applied to fish, "calvered" or "scarved" (?).

esceppa: a skep, a measure of corn, salt, fruit, &c.; a straw or rush basket.

eschaeta. See escaeta.

eschaetor. See escaetator.

eschambia, eschambium: exchange.

escheccum: a jury, or inquisition; a check.

escheppa. See esceppa.

escheweita: sentinel service done by folk of Bordeaux. (Fr. eschauguette.)

eschina: a chine.

eschippare: to equip; to embark.

esclavus: a slave.

esclenka: a leg of mutton or beef. (Fr. esclanche.)

esclusa: a dam or sluice.

esclusagium: payment for permission to make a sluice.

escomarius: a boatman; a pirate.

escruatio: cleaning (ditches).

escuagium. See scutagium.

escuilliare: to castrate.

escurare: to scour; to cleanse.

esgardia, esgardum: a reward; an award.

asgardiator: an arbiter.

esgardium: an award.

esiamentum: easement.

eskaere, &c. See escaere.

esketor: a robber.

eskiper, gen. eskipri: the skipper of a ship.

eskippa. See esceppa.

eskippare: to equip.

eskirmire: to fence.

esmaelitus: enamelled.

esnamiare: to distrain.

esnecca: a ship.

esnecia, esnaccha, esnechia: primogeniture; the limited right of primogeniture of the eldest coparcener.

espaltare, espeltare. See expeditare.

esperdum: an axe (O.E. sparthe).

esperiolus: a squirrel.

esperkeria: a duty on dried fish in the Channel Islands, consisting of a right of preemption of congers; 2d. Tournois on every 100 mackerel; 2 sols Tournois on every bushel of fish; and 2d. on every salt conger exported to Normandy or elsewhere, not in the kingdom of England.

espervarius, esperverius: a sparrow-hawk (accipiter fringillarius).

espicurnantia: the office of spigurnel.

espleta. See expletiae.

espletiamenta. See expletiae.

essaetor: an assayer.

essaia: say, sometimes means fine woolen cloth (serge), sometimes silk. (Fr. soie.)

essarta, essartum. See assartum.

essonia: essoin, excuse for non-appearance at a court baron, &c.

essoniare: to give an excuse; to essoin.

essoniator: an essoiner.

essonium. See essonia.

establiamentum: a settlement.

estallagium. See stallagium.

estallamentum: a mortgage; pawning; an instalment.

estallare: to mortgage; to pawn.

estangnum: a pond (stagnum); a bank or stank; a measure of land less than an acre.

esterlingus: an Easterling; sterling.

estermannus: a pilot.

estintus. See eastintus.

estoverium: estovers, allowance of wood for repairs, or of necessary food and clothes; stover, provender.

estreciare: to make narow; to straiten.

estrepamentum, estrepinamentum: estrepement, injury done to lands by a tenant for life.

estresius: an Easterling.

estuffamentum: stuff; material.

esturare. See escurare.

esturus. See austur.

esuniare: to essoin.

esuniator: an essoiner.

eucharistia: the sacrament; the consecrated bread; a ciborium.

evaginare: to unsheathe.

evangelare: a service-book containing the gospels.

evangelizare: to preach the gospel.

eventio: profits (of a church).

evitaneus: eternal.

ewagium: toll paid for water passage.

ewanglia: the gospels.

exactor: a collector; a sheriff; a beadle.

exallar: an axletree (?),

examitum: samite, a silk stuff, sometimes interwoven with silver or gold; also used for an amice.

exartum. See assartum.

exbannire: to banish.

exbrancatura: outer branches.

excacta, excaeta: an escheat.

excaldare: to scald.

excambia: exchange.

excambiare: to exchange.

excambiator: an exchanger; a broker.

excambium: an exchange.

excarletum: scarlet.

excaturizare: to scald.

excaudare: to scald.

excayare: to escheat.

exclusa. See esclusa.

exclusagium. See esclusagium.

excrustare: to remove the crust of; to spoil.

excudia: a swinglestock, a wooden instrument used in beating flax.

excurtare, excurtiare: to dock the tail of a horse or dog.

excusatorius: containing or giving an excuse.

excussio: driving out; sometimes used for rescue; thrashing corn.

excussorium. See excudia.

exelerarius: a cup bearer.

exemplificare: to copy.

exempnium, exennium: a present; a new year's gift.

exercituale: a heriot.

exfrediare: to break the peace.

exhibere: to provide food and lodging for, to entertain.

exhibitio: entertainment; provision.

exigenda: a writ of exigent.

exigendarius: an exigenter, an officer of the Court of Common Pleas.

exigendis, in: in exigent.

exilium: waste, ruin.

eximperatrix: late empress.

exire: to issue.

exitus: issue, in all senses, family, result, expenditure; entrails.

exkippare, exkiupare: to equip; to embark.

exlegalitus: outlawed.

exlegare: to outlaw.

exonium. See essonia.

exorcista: an exorcist, a benett, one of the lesser orders of the church.

exordinare: to degrade.

expedatus, expedicatus: having the feet cut off; hambled, lawed.

expediencia: management.

expeditamentum: hambling.

expeditare: to hamble, hamel or law a dog, i.e., to cut out the ball of the foot or three claws; to root up trees.

expeditio: the obligation of accompanying the lord to war.

expedores: outriders.

expeltare. See expeditare.

expenditus: spent.

expensabile vinum: wine usually served.

experquaria. See esperkeria.

explacitare: to plead successfully.

expletiae: esplees; rents; profits.

explicit: it is finished or ended.

expressatum: expressed.

exprexum: for expressum.

expulsare: to expel.

expulsatio: expulsion.

exsartum. See assartum.

exscahetor: an escheator.

extendere: to value lands.

extensor: a valuer.

extenta: extent; valuation.

extermino: to bring without the boundaries.

extimare: for aestimare.

extocare: to grub up.

extolneare: to free from toll.

extrabarrista: an utterbarrister.

extracta, extractum: an estreat, a true extract or copy.

extrahura: a stray.

extraneus: a foreigner, i.e., not a citizen.

extravagantes: certain papal constitutions, not included in Gratian or the Decretals.

extumae: relics.

exulatus: an exile.

exuperare: for exsuperare.

eysiamentum. See aisiamentum.


a smith.

fabrica: a smithy.

facescia: used for facetia.

facitergium: a facewipe, a towel.

factum: a deed, a document.

fagatum: a faggot.

faginum: beech mast.

fagottum: a faggot.

faida: feud, enmity.

faidinus, faiditus: an enemy, an exile, a banished man.

fala: "a somer castel," a wooden tower used at sieges and on board ships; a scaffold.

falanga. See falinga.

falcabilis: fit to mow.

falcare: to mow.

falcatura: a day's work at mowing.

falcidium: a swathe.

falco: a falcon.

falcona: a falcon; a small cannon, 2 1/2 inch bore.

falconaria: the service of supplying falcons.

falda: a fold.

faldae cursus: a sheepwalk.

faldagium: faldage, the right to set up folds.

faldicium: a fold; foldage, foldpenny; payment for folding sheep, or for leave to set up a fold.

faldistorium: an arm-chair; esp. a bishop's throne.

faldum: a fold.

falera: trappings (phalera).

falerarius: a sumpter horse.

falerator: a sumpter man.

falescere: to cease; to fail.

falesia: a rock, a cliff.

falinga: a cloak or jacket, used in Ireland (falding?).

falla, fallum: a measure of land; tin; a fault.

fallire: to fail.

falmotum: a folkmote.

falsare: to deceive; to falsify; to forge.

falsarius, falsonarius: a forger.

falsator: a forger.

falsitas: forgery.

falsitia: treachery.

falsonaria, falsoneria: forgery; making false coin.

falsonarius: a maker of false coin.

famen: a speech.

familia: a set of chess or draughts men.

fanatio: the fawning season in forests.

fancielus: some kind of tenant.

fanula: a fanon, a maniple.

farcinula: a package, a parcel.

fardella, fardellum: a fardel, the quarter, or eighth of a yard land.

fardellarius: the holder of a fardel.

fardellus: a bundle; a fardel; the holder of a fardel.

farinagium: toll of meal or flour.

farricapsium: the hopper of a mill; a bin.

farsatura: stuffing.

farundella: a quarter of an acre.

fascennia, fascina: a bastile, a wooden fort used in besieging a town.

fasianus: a pheasant.

fassus: a faggot.

fausetum: treble; a faucet.

faverca: a forge.

febrimatio: ploughing or digging up land.

feida: a feud.

feira: a fair.

feissa: a strip or stripe (?).

felagus: faithful; a companion.

felo: a felon.

felonia: felony.

felonice: feloniously.

felparia, feltrum: felt.

femoralia: drawers, breeches; cuisses.

fenestra: a window.

fenestreola: a small window.

fengera: fern.

fennatio. See feonatio.

fenissa: a haymaker.

fensura: a fence.

fenticius. See finticius.

feodalis, feudalis: feudal; a vassal.

feodalitas, feoditas: fealty.

feodamentum: feoffment.

feodare: to enfeoff.

feodarius, feodatarius: a feodary, an officer of the court of wards; a feudal tenant by service.

feodelitas: fealty, which is correctly fidelitas.

feodi firma: fee farm.

feoditas: fealty.

feodum: a fee; a fief.

feodum talliatum: fee tail.

feoffamentum: a feoffment, grant of tenements, &c. in fee.

feoffare: to enfeoff, to grant in fee.

feoffator: a feoffor.

feoffatus: a feofee.

feonatio: the fawning season, fence month, a fortnight before and a fortnight after Midsummer.

feoragium: straw.

fera: a wild beast, used especially for deer.

feragium: forage.

ferandus. See ferrandus.

ferculum: a dish; a mess; a litter.

ferdella, ferdellum. See fardella.

ferecia: a quilt.

feretriarius: a man in charge of a bier or shrine.

feria: a fair; a day of the week; a ferry.

Feria prima: Sunday.

Feria secunda: Monday, and so on.

feriagium: payment for ferrying.

ferialis. See feriatus.

feriatio: a holiday.

feriatus dies: a feast day, saint's day, holiday.

ferinae carnes: venison.

feritorium: a swingle; a beetle.

ferlingata, ferlingus: four acres; a quarter of a yard land.

ferlingellus: a measure of corn.

ferlingus: a farthing.

fermina: custody.

fermisona: the winter season for killing does.

fernere: to empty.

fernigo: waste land, covered with fern.

ferragia: pasture, land where forage is grown.

ferramentum: an iron tool or instrument; a horseshoe; a ploughshare; a tire; irons for a prisoner.

ferrandus, ferrantus: iron grey.

ferrare: to shoe a horse; to put an iron tire on a wheel.

ferrarius, ferrator: a smith.

ferratura: ironwork; esp. horseshoeing.

ferrifodina: an iron mine.

ferrifilum: iron wire.

ferripodium: a patten.

ferro, ferronarius: an ironmonger or ironworker.

ferrura: a blacksmith's trade; a wheel tire.

ferthendellum: a quarter of an acre.

fesana, fesans, fesantis, fesantus: a pheasant.

fessum, fessus: a truss.

festinancia: haste.

festrum: a roof-tree.

feto cervi: a fawn.

feudalis. See feodalis.

feudum, &c. See feodum, &c.

feugera: fern.

feutrum: felt.

fico: a boat.

fidelitas: fealty.

filacia lana: woolen yarn.

filacium: a file, for documents.

filare: to file.

filarium: a steel, a hone.

filatrix: a spinster.

filatum: a net; thread.

filazarius: a filacer, an officer of the Common Pleas who files writs.

filetum. See filatum.

filiaster: a son-in-law, stepson, nephew, sister's son.

filiastra: similar feminine relatives.

filiatio: sonship, subjection, obedience; used chiefly of monastic houses.

filicetum: ferny ground.

filiolus: godson.

filtrum: felt, a mattrass.

filtum: error for filtrum (?).

filum: a fillet in architecture.

filum aquae: the middle of a river.

fima: dung, manure.

fimare, fimere: to manure

fimarium: a manure heap.

fimarius: a scavenger.

financia: ransom; fine.

finare: to pay; to exact; to refine.

finire: to pay a fine; to exact a fine.

finis: a fine; a final concord.

finticius: of trees, split or fit for splitting.

fiola, fiolum: a beaker; a phial (phiala); a cruet.

firgia: a fetter.

firma: a farm; rent.

firmaculum: a buckle; O.E. fermayle.

firmare: to fortify; to seal or sign; to give security; to grant a farm; to rent a farm.

firmarium: a corruption of infirmarium, an infirmary. O.E. "a fermarie."

firmarius: a farmer.

firmatio: doe season; provisions.

firmitas: fortification.

firmura: a lock; the right of closing.

fisantum: a pheasant.

fistuca: a fishing-rod.

fistulator: a piper.

fixula: a buckle; a button.

flabellum: a vane.

flaccum: an arrow.

flaco: a marsh; a flagon; a cake. See flato.

flagellum: a flail; a door-bar.

flaketta: a flask.

flameola: a garment, usually of silk.

flameum: a kerchief.

flamicia: flawn, custard.

flao. See flato.

flare dolia: to hoop (?) casks.

flasca: a flask.

flato, flauto: a cake, a custard.

flecharia: service of supplying arrows.

flecharius, flecherius: a fletcher.

flechia: an arrow.

flechiare: to make arrows.

flecta: an arrow; a hurdle.

fleebotimacio: bleeding.

fleta: an arm of the seas.

flexarius: a fletcher.

flocci: flock, refuse wool.

floccus. See frocca.

floratus: embroidered with flowers; scented.

florenus: a florin, a gold coin, first coined at Florence, 1252.

flota, flotta: a fleet; a raft.

foagium: a rent paid in the Channel Islands. See focagium.

focagium: focage or housebote; hearth-tax.

focale, focalia: fuel; the right of taking fuel.

focaria: a housekeeper.

focarius: a fireman; a stoker.

fodera: a fother (of lead), 1,950 lbs. or 2,000 lbs.; 20 cwt. (E.C.P. 59; 215).

foderaticum: fodder.

fodertorium, foderum, fodrum: fodder.

foenatio. See feonatio.

foesa: grass.

fogagium: fog, rank grass.

folgare: to follow; to enter into service; to serve.

folgarius: a follower; a servant.

follus: a fool.

fongia: stockfish.

foo: a fawn.

foracra: a foracre, the headland of an arable field.

foragium: straw; forage; the right of extracting it or obligation to provide it.

foraneus: foreign.

forarium: the office of harbinger.

foratus: of fur.

forbannitus: a banished man.

forbare: to clean, to furbish.

forbarrare: to bar or deprive.

forbator: a furbisher.

forbatudus: a person killed in self-defence.

forbire. See forbare.

forcelectum: a fortress.

forceria, forcerium: a casket; a strongbox, often of leather.

forcescettum: a fortress.

forcia: power, force, usually unjust; forcible exaction.

forciare: to fortify.

fordellus: a measure of land larger than fardella.

forefacere. See forisfacere.

forejudicatio: a forejudger.

forellus: a sheath; a corporas case.

forenna: the outskirts or suburbs of a town.

forensis: foreign.

forera, foreria: a headland; a furrow (?).

foresta: a forest.

forestagium: a duty paid to the king's foresters.

forestallagium, forestallamentum: obstructing the highway; forestalling.

forestallare: to forestall; to waylay.

forestallator: a forestaller.

forestallum: a crime committed on the highway.

forestare: to afforest.

forestaria: the office of forester; forestership; forestry.

forestarius: a forester.

foreta: a headland.

forgia: a forge; forage.

forhelna: concealment.

forhurtha. See foruhtha.

foriare: to forage.

foricus: furred.

forigo: list.

forinsecus: outside; foreign.

forisbannire: to outlaw.

forisburgum: suburbs.

forisfacere: to do amiss; to forfeit; also used actively, to exact a forfeit from.

forisfactum: transgression; forfeiture.

forisfactura: forfeiture.

forisfamiliare: to remove from the family; to give a son his portion on his leaving home; to emancipate.

forisjudicare: to pronounce forfeited; to outlaw.

forisjurare: to abjure.

foristallarium, foristeallum, foristalria: forestalment.

forjudicare. See forisjudicare.

forlandum: land at the extremity of an estate; a promontory.

forlangum. See furlangus.

forma: a form, a bench; a copy; a drain.

formannus: a foreman; a headman.

formaticum: cheese.

formela: a formaylle, a female hawk.

formella: a shoemaker's last; a weight of about 70 lbs.

formelus: trained, of a hawk.

formipedia: a shoemaker's last.

formula: a little bench.

fornagium: payment by tenants bound to bake in the lord's oven, or for the right to use their own; a baker's profit; hearth-money; fuel.

fornire: to heat.

forpices: shears.

forprisum: an exception.

forrare, forrari: to forage.

forrerius: a harbinger.

forsefacere: to forfeit.

forstallare, &c. See forestallare, &c.

forsula: a fortress.

fortalicium, fortallissium: a fortress, a castle.

fortelecium, fortellescum. See fortalicium.

fortericia: a fortress.

fortia: power. See forcia.

fortiare: to force; to fortify.

fortificare: to fortify.

fortilagium: a fortress.

fortitudo: force; an army.

fortuna: treasure trove.

fortunare: to happen.

fortunium: a tournament.

foruhtha: a measure of land.

forulus: a bin; a sheath.

forum: often means "price."

forura: fur.

forurda: a measure of land.

forus: right or custom.

fossa: a mound, a dike, as well as a ditch.

fossagium: contribution for making ditches.

fossare: to ditch.

fossatum: a place surrounded by a ditch; a ditch; a dike; a mound.

fossatura: fortification by ditches.

fossiculus: a basket (?); a fostle, i.e. a stake used in making a fold.

fossorium: a mould.

fossus: a ditch.

fotmellum: a meausure of lead; a fother (?).

fotor: a lapdog, "a comforter."

founinare: to bring forth young (of deer).

founinus: of a fawn.

founum: a fawn.

fousura: work done by a mason; digging foundations (?).

fovea: a burial-place.

foveator: a gravedigger.

fractillosus: dagged, jagged (of clothes).

fractillum: a pepper mill.

fractillus: a dag, jag.

fractitium: arable land.

fraellum, frahellum: a frail; a basket; a weight of raisins, 70 lbs.

fraeria: a fraternity; a brotherhood.

fraginellus: a cracknel.

fragus: the wrist or other joint.

fraillum. See fraellum.

framatura: making a frame; framework.

franca petra: freestone.

francbordus: freebord, land claimed outside a fence.

franchesia: freedom; franchise.

franchilanus: a freeman.

franchire, franchisare: to enfranchise.

franchisa: a franchise.

francigena: a foreigner.

franciplegium: frankpledge.

francolanus, francolensis: a franklin.

francus: free.

frangibulum: a kneading trough.

fraria: a fraternity; a brotherhood.

frassetum: an ashwood (fraxinetum).

frater: a friar.

fratriagium: a younger brother's inheritance.

frecta, frectum: coarse cloth, as used for horse cloths, frieze (?); embroidery, usu. with metal; a fret; fretwork.

frectagium: freight.

frectatus: frettee (heraldic).

frectum: freight. See frecta.

fredum: a composition paid by a criminal.

frescus: fresh.

fressencia porci: a flitch (?).

fretare, frettare: to load; to freight; to ornament with fretwork.

fretinum: a silver coin (Fr. fretin, freton).

fretta. See frecta.

frettum: freight. See frecta.

fretum: freight.

frideburgum: frithburgh, the same as frankpledge.

frisca forcia: fresh force, i.e., newly done.

friscus: fresh; also uncultivated ground.

frisium: frieze.

frithbregium: breach of the peace.

fritum: fry of fish.

frixura: a fried dish; a pancake.

frocca, froccus, froggus: a frock; that worn by monks was a long garment with long, wide sleeves.

fronciatus: wrinkled.

frontale: a frontal, a cloth hung above an altar.

frontellum: a frontal.

frontinella: moulding, in goldsmith's work; the ball of the throat.

frontispicium: a gable end.

frontuosus (frontosus): shameless.

fructuarius: a fruiterer; a receiver of rent.

fruissire. See frussare.

frunes, frunio: a tanner.

frunire: to tan.

frusca: waste lands.

frussare: to break up land.

frussatum: land newly broken up.

frusshiare. See frussare.

frussire. See frussare.

frussura: breaking into a house; ploughing.

frustrum, frustum: a piece; a small plot of land.

frutectum: a shrubbery; a herb garden.

fuagium: hearth-tax.

fuallia: fuel.

fuga: a drove; a chase; hunting; the right to drive cattle on to a place.

fugacia: a chase; right of hunting.

fugare: to hunt; to drive.

fugarius: a hunter (horse); a drover.

fugatio: a chase.

fugator: a hunter (horse); a driver; a drover.

fugatorius: a hunter (horse).

fugera: fern.

fugillus: a poker.

fulcrari: to make a bed on a bedstead.

fulcrum: a leg of a bedstead; a bedstead.

fuleratium, molendinum: a fulling mill.

fullare, fullire, fullonare: to full cloth.

fullaticum. See fuleratium.

fullum aquae: a stream of water.

fulreticum: a fulling mill.

fultra: a cushion.

fultrum. See fulcrum.

fumagium: manure; chimney-money.

fumarium: a chimney.

functorium: a foundry.

funditor: a founder; a pioneer.

fundum: ground.

funerius: a ropemaker.

fungia: stockfish.

funifex: a roper.

funtura: founding, casting (metal).

furare: to steal.

furatio: theft.

furbire: to furbish.

furcare: to pitch corn or hay with a fork; to fourch, to delay a suit brought against two persons jointly, by alternate appearance or essoin.

furectare: to ferret.

furfuraculum: a sieve.

furigeldum: a fine for theft.

furlangus, furlongus: the eighth of a mile; the eighth of an acre.

furmelum. See formella.

furnagium. See fornagium.

furnarius: a baker.

furnesium: a furnace.

furniare: to bake.

furnire: to heat up an oven or furnace.

furnus: a bakehouse.

furra: fur.

furragium. See foragium.

furrare: to line with fur.

furratio: furring.

furratura: furring, work done in fur.

furratus: furred.

furrellus: a sword sheath; a bow case.

furrura, fururia: fur.

furulus. See furrellus.

fuscamen: fustian.

fusillatim: fusilly.

fusillus: a fusil (heraldic).

fusor: a founder, a caster, a melter; a fusour, an officer in the Exchequer.

fusoria: the office of fusour.

fustarius: a joiner.

fustianum: fustian.

fustum: a beam, a log, a stump.

fusus: a spindle; a fusil (heraldic).


rent; service.

gabellus: a gable.

gablagium: the same as gabella.

gablare: to pay rent.

gablator: a rent payer; a farmer.

gablum: a cross. See also gabella.

gabulagium. See gabella.

gabulum: a gable; rent; interest. See gabella.

gabulus. See gabella.

gachum: an oar or scull; a staple; a cake.

gafra: a wafer.

gafrarius: a waferer.

gageria: a promise, an engagement, a pledge.

gagnagium, gaignagium, gainagium: gain, profit.

gaila: a gaol, a prison.

gaineria: a tilled field; a crop.

gaiola. See gaila.

gaivelettum. See gaveletum.

galathia: pickle for preserving fish.

galea, galia: a galley.

galearia: a gallery.

galeasia: a galliasse, a large galley.

galeo: a galleon.

galeta, galetum: a gallon; shingle.

galida: a galley, a low flat-built ship with both sails and oars.

galio: a galleon, a large Spanish sailing ship, with three or four decks.

gailiota, galiotus: a galliot, a small galley; a master of, or man serving on a galley.

galirium: something used by a silk weaver.

galla: a shoemaker's last.

gallecta: collection of dues.

galliare: a mitre.

gallicantus: cockcrow.

gallicidium: Shrovetide.

gallinaceus: a capon.

galliottus. See galiota.

gallivolatium: a cock-glade, a glade along which woodcocks fly in the morning and evening; a cockshoot, a net set for them in such places.

gallo, gallona, galo, galona, galum: a gallon.

gayla: a galley.

gamarus: a stickleback (gasterosteus trachurus).

gamberia: armour for the legs. Fr. grevieres.

gambeso, gambesum: a gambeson or haqueton, a quilted jacket worn under the armour.

gambria. See gamberia.

ganagium. See gagnagium.

ganea: a dart or arrow.

ganerium: gainery, profit arising from tillage.

gannatura: yelping, derision.

gannocare cerevisiam: to jockey beer.

gansellium: a gosling.

ganta, ganteletus: a gauntlet.

gaola: a prison, a gaol.

gaolagium: prison dues.

gaolarius: a gaoler.

gara terrae: a gare or gore, a wedge-shaped corner of a field left after ploughing a number of strips.

garancia: madder.

garandisare: to warrant.

garantum: warrant.

garba: a sheaf; a sheaf of arrows was 24.

garbana: a granary.

garbelagium: garbelage, the office of a garbler; the refuse removed by garbling.

garbellare: to garble, to pick out the refuse.

garbellator: a garbler, who visited shops, &c. to examine the purity of spices sold.

garcifer. See garcio.

garcio: a boy; a groom.

garciolus: a diminutive of garcio.

garda: a ward of a town; wardship. See warda.

gardaroba, garderoba: a wardrobe.

garderobarius: a wardrobe-keeper.

gardia: ward.

gardiana: the office of warden.

gardianus: a guardian; a warden.

gardiare: to guard, to protect.

gardiator: a guardian, a warden.

gardinarius: a gardener.

gardinum: a garden.

gardropia: a wardrobe.

gardum: a garth.

garenna: a warren. See warenna.

gargarare: to brag.

gargata: the throat.

garilatrix: a scold.

gariso: protection; provision, living; healing.

garita: a watch tower.

garlanda: a chaplet; a garland, sometimes of gold or silver.

garnamentum: a garment.

garnestura: victuals, &c., necessary for a garrison; a garrison.

garniso: protection; a garrison.

garnizare: to adorn; to garnish.

garra. See gara.

garrettum: a garret.

garrita: a watchtower.

garrolum, garrulium: a barrier.

garterium: a garter.

gastaldus: a governor of a town or province.

gastella: wastel bread, fine white bread.

gastum: waste.

gata: a bowl.

gatgeria: a parcel.

gauda, gaudo: woad.

gaugeare: to gauge.

gaugetum: gauging, a gauge.

gaugiator: a gauger.

gaveletum: gavelet, a writ of cessavit, used where gavelkind obtains.

gavelmannus: a tenant liable to tribute.

gavelocus: a javelin.

gayra. See gara.

geburus: a villager, a peasant.

geldabilis: liable to pay tax.

geldabulum: land liable to payment of geldum.

geldare: to enforce or to pay a geldum.

geldatio: payment of a geldum.

geldum, geldus: tax; compensation; fine.

gelima: a sheaf.

geloffum: a gillyflower.

geltum. See geldum.

gemala: a hinge.

gemellus: a clasp with similar ends, or double brooch. O.E. gemewe.

gemotum: an assembly.

genealis: native.

generale: the commons of a monk.

generosa: a gentlewoman.

generosus: a gentleman.

geneta: a genet, a beast of the weasel tribe, used for fur (genetta vulgaris).

genimen: an offshoot.

genoboda: a moustache.

gens: often used for an army.

genuscissio: hocking or hambling dogs by cutting the sinew of the hind leg.

geola, &c. See gaola, &c.

gerarchia: used for hierarchia.

gerca, gercia, gercis: a ewe lamb.

gerentarius: an officer in a convent, probably a friary, who was not compelled to reside therein (granatarius?).

gerlanda: a garland.

gernarium: a granary.

gersa: starch.

gersuma: a fine; a reward; an earnest. O.E. "gryssume."

gerulus: a packhorse.

gerusa: a goad.

gesa: a gisarme. See gisarma.

gesta: (pl.) deeds; a history.

gesta, gestum: yeast; food.

gestrum: a jesterne or jestorne, a sleeveless jacket of scale armour.

getti: a hawk's jesses.

getticium: a jetty.

gewineda: an assembly.

ghestum: food; a meal given to a guest. See gistum.

guialda, gyalda: a guildhall.

gifra: cypher.

gifta: a stream; sometimes used for gista.

giga: a cittern.

gignasium, i.e., gymnasium.

gihalda: a guildhall.

gilda: a fraternity, a guild.

gilda aula: a guildhall.

gildare. See geldare.

gildatio. See geldatio.

gildaula, gildeaula, gildhalla: a guildhall.

gildhalla Teutonicorum: the Steelyard, or company of Easterling merchants.

gilfalco: a gerfalcon (fulco Islandicus).

gilla, gillus: a mug.

gillagium: tax paid on wine sold by retail.

gilofera: clover or gillyflower.

gimphus. See gumfus.

gingibrattum: ginger.

gipo: a doublet (pourpoint).

gipsura: pargeting.

girgillare: to wind up.

girgillus: a reel with a handle for winding thread.

girivagus: wandering.

giro: an apron, a skirt.

gisarma: a gisarme, a weapon resembling a halberd, having a spear point, with a small axe at the foot of the point, and sometimes a spike on the opposite side; but in Matthew Paris (Rolls Ed. I. 470) the phrase occurs, "sica, id est, gisarme."

gista: a joist. See also gistum.

gistare: to furnish with joists; to recline on a litter.

gistarius: borne on a litter.

gistum: the duty of entertaining the lord when on a journey; yeast.

glandines plumbei: "Anglice hail-hot."

glaneare: to glean.

glasia: ice.

glavea, glavia: a glaive.

gleba: land belonging to a parish church, glebe; a corpse.

glebalis terra: glebe land.

glebaria: turf.

gleniagium: gleaning.

gleniare: to glean.

glis: mud.

gliseria: clayland.

glomellus: a clew.

glomerarius, glomerellus: a commissioner appointed to settle disputes between the scholars of a university and their servants (?).

glorietta: a gloriet, an upper room in a tower.

glossum: a shrine.

glutum: glue.

gobonatus: embossed.

godetus: a mug.

golda: a drain; a mine (?).

goliarda: buffoonery; a juggler's art.

goliardisare: to act as a goliardus.

goliardus: a buffoon; a juggler.

gonella, gonellus: a gown.

gora. See gara.

gordus: a weir, a weirpool; a gorce.

gorgeria: a gorget.

gorgona: a gargoyle.

gota: a gut, a drain.

gouna: a gown.

grabatum: a couch.

gracemannus: the head of a guild at Lincoln.

gracia: an indulgence.

gradale, graduale: a gradual, or grail, a book containing the musical portion of the mass.

gradiens: passant (heraldic).

graduatus: a graduate, one who has taken a degree in a university.

grafia, graffia: the dignity or territory of a graffio.

graffio: a count, an earl; a reeve.

graffum, grafium: a register, or cartulary; a pen.

grana: scarlet. See granum.

granata: a garnet.

granatarius: a keeper or steward of a granary.

grancia: a grange, esp. a farmhouse belonging to a monastery.

graneta: a garnet.

granetarius. See granatarius.

grangia. See grancia.

grangiarius: the keeper of a grange.

grantum: security. See creantum.

granum: grain; the coccus ilicis and coccus arborum, used in dyeing red.

grapa: a putlog hole.

graphium. See graffium.

gratare: to scratch.

gratarium: a grate.

gratia: an indulgence.

gratiare: to thank.

grava: a grove.

gravetum: a grove.

gravia: a grove. See also grafia.

gremium: the nave of a church.

grenetarius: a keeper of a granary.

greseus, gresius: grey.

gresmannus: a tenant of some sort.

gressia: grease time, the season for killing harts and bucks.

gressibilis: able to walk.

grisengus, grisetus, griseus: grey.

griseum opus: greywork, gris, fur of badger skin, or more likely the "mus Ponticus."

grisillones: handcuffs, manacles.

grisium. See griseum.

grissus: grey; gris.

gristarius: an official of a convent, probably in charge of the mills.

grisus: grey, gris.

groceria: grocery.

grocerius: a grocer.

gromes, grometus, gromus: a groom.

gronna: a place whence peat is dug.

gropus: a hook, perhaps a skid.

grossa: a groat.

grossare: to engross, to make a fair copy, or to buy up.

grossarius: an engrosser, a grocer.

grossum: the revenue of a benefice; gross.

grossus: (adj.) large, gross.

grossus: (subst.) a groat (Fr. Gros.)

groundagium: payment for permission to anchor in a harbour.

grova: a grove.

grovetta: a little grove.

grovum: a grove.

gruarius: a chief forester; a falcon used for cranes.

gruellum: gruel.

grumus: gruel; a mound; a balk of land.

grunda: a gutter. See alura.

gruta: grouse.

grutum: grout.

guadagium. See guidagium.

guadium, guagium. See vadium.

gualda: woad.

guannagium. See wainagium.

guarda: ward.

guardaroba: a wardrobe.

guardia: wardship.

guardiania: the office of warden or guardian.

guardianus: a warden; a guardian.

guardiare: to guard, to protect.

guarectare. See warectare.

guarenna: a warren.

guarennarius, guarnerius: a warenner.

guaretare. See warectare.

guarniso: provision.

guastum: waste.

guerra: war.

guerrare: to make war.

guerrator: a warrior.

geurreare: to make war.

guerria: war.

guerrificare: to make war.

guerrinus: at war; warlike.

guiare: to lead.

guidagium: safe-conduct; a payment for safe-conduct.

guidare: to lead; to take toll for leading.

guido: a guidon.

guihalla: a guildhall.

guilda: a guild.

guildhalda: a guildhall.

gula: a tippet.

gula Augusti: the first of August, Gulaust, Lammas Day.

Gulaustum. See gula Augusti.

gulfus: a whirlpool; a gulf.

gulla: a gully, a watercourse.

gumfus, gumpha: a hinge, a joint; glue.

guna: a cupping glass (guva); a gown.

gunca: reeds.

gunellus: a short gown.

gunna: some part of the machinery of a mill; a cannon, a gun; a gown.

gunnarius: a gunner.

gunnum: a cannon, a gun.

gupilierettus: a foxhound.

gupillius: a fox.

gurda: a handmill (?).

gurgeria: a gorget.

gurges, gurgitum: a weir.

gurgulio: a gargoyle.

gurtus: a weir.

guttatorium, guttorium: a gutter.

guttera, gutteria, guttura: a gutter.

gutturna: quinsy.

gutturus: a gutter.

guuarda: ward (guarda).

guyalda: a guildhall.

guysa: manner, form.

gwafra: a wafer.

gwalstowum: a place of execution.

gwastum: waste.

gyalda: a guildhall.

gydagium: payment to a guide.

gylda: a guild.

gysa: manner, form.

gysarma: a gisarme. See gisarma.



habilis: fit; capable.

habilitatio: qualification.

habitualiter: by estimation; figuratively.

habitudinalis: figurative.

habundancia. For abundancia.

haccus: a hake (merlucius vulgaris).

hachia: a pickaxe; a hatchet.

hada: a small piece of land.

haderunga: hatred.

hadocus: a haddock (morrhua aeglefinus).

haerarius: nesting.

haereditas, &c. See hereditas, &c.

haerela. See harela.

haeria: an aery, a nest.

haga: a hedge; a house in a city or borough.

hagabulum: a rate or tax paid at Cambridge.

hagardum: a rickyard.

hagis, haia, haicia: a hedge.

hainescia. See esnecia.

hairus: a heron; haircloth.

haka: a hake (merlucius vulgaris).

hadedus: a hake.

hakeneius, haknettus: a hackney, a nag.

hala: a hall.

halberga: a hauberk, a coat of mail.

halbergettum: a coarse cloth.

halberiolum: a haubergeon, a tunic of mail.

halda: a hall.

halgardum: a shed.

halimotum: hallmote; court baron.

halla: a hall.

halsfagium: pillory; a fine.

hamella, hamelettum: a hamlet.

hamleta, hamlettus: a hamlet.

hamma: a home-close; a little meadow; an edge or hem in the common field.

hamsoca: the privilege of a person's house; a fine for forcible entry.

hanaperium, haneparium: a hamper. The Hanaper is an office in the Court of Chancery.

hanchia, hancia: a haunch. See also hansa.

handana, handayna, handena: a day's work.

hangardum: a shed.

hangwitha: a fine for wrongfully hanging a robber or letting him escape.

hansa: a house, or company of merchants; a city with reference to its foreign mercantile dealings.

hara: a stye.

haracium: a stud of horses.

harare: to plough.

haratium: a stud of horses.

harciare: to harrow.

harela: a conspiracy; a society; a riot.

harenga: a harangue; a herring.

harengaria: the herring fishery, or season.

harengus: a herring (clupea harengus).

harepipa: a snare for hares, called a harepipe.

harnesiare: to put on armour; to harness; to decorate.

harnesium, harnisium: armour; harness; rigging.

harpare: to play on the harp.

harpica: a harrow.

harpicator: a harrower.

harrectus: a harrier.

harreum: a herd, troop, esp. of horses.

haspa: a hasp, a door-fastening.

hasta: a spit.

hastalaria, hastellaria: a spittery, a place where spits are kept.

hastellarius: a turnspit.

hastiludium: a tournament.

hatchettus: a hatchet.

haubercum: a hauberk, a long coat of mail with sleeves.

haubergellum, haubergeo: a habergeon, a short sleeveless coat of mail; sometimes used for hauberk.

haubergettum: a habergeon, not necessarily of metal; a sort of parti-coloured cloth. O.E. haberject.

hauberionus, hauberiunus: a habergeon.

hauborio: a habergeon.

hauritorium: a ladle; a pump.

haustrum: a bucket; a pump.

havenator: a harbour master.

haverocum: a haycock, a hayrick; the quantity of hay which can be lifted on the handle of a scythe, or bound with one cord.

haya, haycia: a hedge; a net; an enclosure.

haydagium. Same as hedagium (?). (Selby Cartulary, f. 126.)

hayea: a hedge.

hayum: a meadow.

hebdomada: a week.

hebdomadarius: a canon of a cathedral church, appointed weekly to take charge of the choir; a priest appointed for weekly duty in a monastery.

heccagium: rent for heckles, fishing engines used in the Ouse, and at Pevensey.

hechium: a hatch; a hedge.

heckagium. See heccagium.

heda: a wharf; a hithe.

hedagium: toll paid at a wharf.

heiria: an eyry, a nest.

heiro: a heron.

heiwardus: a hayward.

heltum: a hilt.

heraldus: a herald.

herbagium: herbage; right of pasturing cattle; payment therefor.

herbarius: a haymaker.

herbergagium: lodgings.

herbergare, herbigare: to lodge; to entertain. See also herbergiare.

herbergeria: a harbour; a halting place; a lodging.

herbergiare: to build; to furnish. See also herbergare.

herbergiator: a harbinger; an innkeeper.

herbiseca: a mower.

hercarius: a harrower.

hercea: a hearse.

hercia: a harrow; a frame to hold candles.

herciare: to harrow.

herciatura: harrowing; service by harrowing.

herebannum: a fine for refusing to perform military service.

herecius: a hound used for stag hunting.

heredipeta: the next heir.

hereditamentum: hereditament, all property that may be inherited.

hereditare: to cause to inherit.

hereditas: an inheritance.

herellus: a kind of small fish.

heremina: ermine.

heremita: a hermit.

heremitorium: a hermitage.

herenesium: harness.

heresista: a heretic.

heretagium: hereditament; heritage.

heretochius: a commander of soldiers.

heretrix: an heiress.

herettius canis: the same as harrectus (?) or herecius.

heretum: a courtyard for the use of soldiers.

herezeldus: military service, scutage.

herga: a harrow.

hericius: a hedgehog; a revolving bar with spikes used in fortresses.

herietum: a heriot.

herigaldum: a surcoat.

herigeta: a heriot.

herilis: there are two adjectives spelt thus, one derived from haeres, the other from herus.

heriotum: a heriot.

heriscindium: division of household goods.

herminus: ermine.

hermitagium, hermitorium: a hermitage.

hernasii: irregular soldiers.

hernasium, hernesium. See harnesium.

herodius: a gerfalcon (falco Islandicus).

heroudes: a herald.

herpex: a harrow.

herpicatio: a day's harrowing.

hersia: a hearse.

hersium: a metal frame to hold candles.

hesia: an easement.

hesta, hestha: a small loaf; a fowl.

heuedrata: a headland (?); perhaps the right to store manure on headlands.

heura: a hure. See hura.

heymectus: a rabbit-net.

heyretheca: a heriot.

heyronagium: a heronry.

heyronus: a heron.

hibernagium: the winter season for sowing corn, Michaelmas to Christmas; corn sown in winter; winter services; the court at which they were assigned; rye.

hida: a hide of land, sufficient land to maintain a family or to work with one plough team, reckoned about 120 acres. 4 hides = 1 knight's fee.

hidagium: a tax levied on every hide of land; a fine paid by persons of servile condition instead of receiving corporal punishment for offences (hydgild).

hidare: to divide into hides.

higra: the bore or eager of a river.

hilla: a sausage.

hiltra: an engine for catching salmon.

hiltum: a hilt.

hindagium: loading.

hippocomus: a master of the horse.

hiremannus: a servant.

hiritinum: a harrow (?).

hirna: a sausage.

hirquicallus: squinting.

hirsepa: a torch.

hiruco. See hericius.

hispaniolus: a spaniel.

historia: a story, in a building.

hitha: a wharf; a hithe.

hivernagium. See hibernagium.

hlammator: a fisherman of some kind.

hobellarius: a hobbler, a light horse soldier who rode a hobby.

hobelus: a hobby (falco subbuteo).

hoberarius. See hobellarius.

hoccus salis: a salt pit.

hocium: the housing of a horse.

hoga: a mound; a pit caused by making a mound.

hogacius: a hogget.

hogaster: a pig; a sheep in its second year, a hogget.

hogettus, hogietus: a hogget.

hoggus: a hog.

hogrus: a sheep.

homagium: homage.

hominatio: muster; homage.

hominium: homage.

homiplagium: maiming.

hopa: a hopper, a basket.

hora: ore (ora).

horarius, horarium: a breviary; a book of Hours.

hordarius: the keeper of a granary.

hordera: a treasurer.

horderium: a granary; a treasury.

hordicium: a hurdle.

horisonium: a clock.

hornagium, hornegeldum: a tax on cattle.

horologiarius: a clock maker.

horologium: a clock; a watch.

horoscopus: a dial.

horripilatio: shuddering.

hortarius: a gardener.

horula: a short time (dim. of hora).

hosa: a small wooden cask.

hosae: hose.

hosarius: a hosier.

hospitalaria: the hostry or guest-house of a monastery.

hospitalarius: a knight of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem; a hospitaller or hostillar, a monk whose duty is to attend to guests, the steward of the guest-house; a guest-master.

hospitale, hospitalitas: an inn; a guest house; a hospital.

hospitare terram: to enclose (?); to build a house on.

hospitarius. See hospitalarius.

hospitator: an innkeeper.

hospitium: a house for receiving guests; an inn, a hostel; an Inn of Court or Chancery; procuration or visitation money.

hostagium: hostage. See also hospitium and hostelagium.

hostelagium: a lord's right of being lodged by his tenants.

hostelarium. See hospitalaria.

hostellarius: an innkeeper. See also hospitalarius.

hosteria: a ciborium, q.v.

hosterium: a hoe.

hostia: the consecrated wafer.

hostiagius: a hostage.

hostiaratus, hostiaria: the office of usher or doorkeeper, one of the minor orders.

hostiarius: an usher.

hosticius: a porch.

hostilagium. See hostelagium.

hostillaria. See hospitalaria.

hostillarius: an ostler. See hospitalarius.

hostium. For ostium.

hostorcus: a goshawk (astur palumbarius).

hostorium: a strickle for measuring corn.

hostorius: a goshawk.

hostria. See hospitalaria.

hostricus: a goshawk.

huca: a hewke, a frock or mantle.

hucea: housing of a horse; a gown.

huchea: a hutch.

hudagium. See hidagium.

hugia: a hoy; a hutch.

huisserium: a ship for conveying horses.

huisserius: an usher.

hulcus. See hulka.

huldare: to plank, to put campsheathing on a bank.

hulka: a large ship, a transport ship.

hullus: a hill.

hulmus: a holm, a meadow on a river bank, or an island.

humagium: a marshy place; homage.

hummulina: beer.

hundreda. See hundredum.

hundredarius: a hundredor, a juror in a case concerning land who lives in the hundred in which the land is; a bailiff of a hundred.

hundredum: a hundred, a division of a shire; a hundred court; payment due from a hundred; fine from the hundredors for non-appearance at the court.

hura: a hure, a coarse cap.

hurarius: a hurrer, a maker of hures.

hurdicius: a hurdle; a military engine to protect the assailants of a fortress; a hoarding.

hurtardus, hurtus: a ram.

husa: a horsecloth; housing.

husbandrea: a farmhouse; a farm.

husbandus: a farmer; a peasant.

huscarla, huscarlius: a household servant; a military retainer attached to the lord's household.

huscus: a holm.

husebondus: a husband, in the sense of economy.

husgablum, husgabulum: house-tax, or rent, husgable.

hussus: holly.

hustengium, hustengum, hustingum: hustings; the Supreme Court of the City of London.

hutagium, hutasium, hutellum, hutesium: hue [and cry].

huterellum: drift wood (?).

hyda. See hida.

hydromellum: mead.



ibernagium. See hibernagium.

icona, iconia: an image, a figure.

iconomia: housekeeping.

idago. See indago.

idoneare: to prove innocence, to purge.

idriola: a holy water stoup.

ifungia: cocket bread, the second best white bread.

ignitegium: curfew.

illegitimitas: bastardy.

illicite: translated in a document of 1385, "aukewardly."

illimitatus: unlimited.

illuminare: to paint. (O.E. limne.)

imaginarius: an image maker.

imbassiator: an ambassador.

imbesilare: to embezzle.

imbreviare: to abridge; to put in writing.

imbricatus: engrailed. See engrallatus.

imbrocus: a brook.

imbulus: a pentice, a penthouse.

imbursare: to put in one's own purse.

immeabilis: immoveable.

immeliorare: to improve.

immerciatus: fined, amerced.

imminorare: to diminish.

impalare: to impound.

impanellare: to enter the names of a jury; to empanel.

imparcamentum: the right of impounding cattle.

imparcare: to impark; to impound.

imparcatio. See imparcamentum.

impechiamentum: hindrance; impeachment.

impechiare: to accuse, to impeach.

impedia: the upper leather of a shoe.

impediare: to mutilate a dog's feet, to law. See expeditare.

impedientes: defendants.

impennare: to feather arrows.

imperator: the emperor.

imperpetuum: for ever.

impersonare: to institute a rector.

impersonata, persona: parson imparsonee, a lawful incumbent in actual possession.

impescatus: impeached.

impetere: to accuse, to impeach.

impetitio: an impeachment; a claim.

impignoratissia: adj. as a pledge.

impinguare: to fatten.

implacitare: to implead, to sue.

implementum: complement; an utensil.

implicatio: a landing-stage, a mooring place.

impoisonare: to poison.

impomentum: a dessert of fruit.

importancia: importance.

imposterum: hereafter.

impotionare: to poison.

impressor: a printer.

impressus: an adherent, a partisan.

impretiabilis: invaluable.

imprimere: to print.

imprisa, imprisia: enterprise.

imprisius: an adherent.

imprisonamentare: to imprison.

imprisonamentum: imprisonment.

imprisonare: to imprison.

imprisus: an adherent.

improbatio: disapproval; disproof.

improperare: to blame; to impute.

improperatio: disgrace; insult.

impropriatio: an ecclesiastical benefice in the hands of a layman.

impruiamentum: the improvement of land, sometimes written appruiamentum.

impruiare: to improve land.

inabilitas. See inhabilitas.

inactitare: to register.

inamelatus: enamelled.

inancia: advantage, advance.

inannulatus: not ringed (of a pig).

inantea: henceforth.

inbasciator: an ambassador.

inbladare: to sow with corn.

inbladatio: growing crops.

inblaura: the product of land (imbladatura).

inbreviare. See imbreviare.

inbrochiare: to broach.

inbullare: to insert in a bull.

incarcare: to imprison.

incartare: to grant by a written deed.

incastellare: to fortify.

incausare: to implead.

incaustorium: an inkhorn.

incaustum: ink.

incensare: to use incense; to confer an office.

incerchare: to seek.

incertum opus: rubble work.

incharaxare: to put in writing.

inchartare. See incartare.

inclaudare: to fetter.

inclausa. See inclausura.

inclaustrum: a cloister.

inclausura: an enclosure, a home close.

inclavare: to prick with a nail.

includere: to enclose.

inclusa: a nun; an anchoress.

inclusarius, inclusorius: a pinder.

inclusorium: a pound.

inclusus: a monk; an anchorite.

incluvium: some instrument of torture.

incombrancia: encumbrance.

incombrare: to hinder; to stop up a road; to pawn.

incompatibilitas: incompatibility, of benefices which cannot be held together.

incopare: to accuse.

incopolitus: a proctor; a vicar.

incordare: to string a bow or crossbow.

incortinare: to adorn with hangings.

incrastinum: the morrow.

incredens: infidel.

incrocamentum: encroachment.

incrocare, incrochiare: to encroach.

incrustator: a tinker.

inculpare: to blame; to accuse.

inculpatio: blame; accusation.

incumbrare. See incombrare.

incurramentum: liability to a penalty.

incurrimentum: a fine.

incussa. For inconcussa.

incussorium: a hammer.

incustodia: carelessness.

indago: a park.

indebitatus: indebted.

indecimabilis: not liable to tithes.

indefensus: one who refuses to answer to an accusation.

indefesibilis: indefeasible, that which cannot be made void.

indempnis. For indemnis.

indentare: to indent.

indentura: an indenture.

index: a pointer or setter dog.

indicibilis: unspeakable.

indictamentum: an indictment.

indictare: to indict.

indictio: indictment; indiction, a cycle of fifteen years by which writings were dated at Rome.

indictor: an accuser.

indistanter: immediately.

indistringibilis: not distrainable.

indivisibilis murus: a main wall, not a party wall.

indivisum: held in common.

indorsamentum: endorsement.

indorsare: to endorse.

indorsatio: endorsement.

indossare. See indorsare.

inductio: induction, putting a clergyman into possession of his church.

indula: strong thread.

indus: indigo.

inedicibilis: unspeakable.

inewardus: a watchman.

infaidare: to be at enmity with.

infalistatio: a capital punishment inflicted at Dover, drowning (?).

infeodare: to enfeoff.

infeodatio decimarum: granting tithes to laymen.

infeofare: to enfeoff.

inferius: lower down, in a roll; further on, in a book.

infirmaria: the infirmary of a monastery. O.E. fermory, farmery.

infirmarius: the guardian of the sick in a monastery.

infirmatorium: an infirmary.

infiscare: to confiscate.

inflechiare: to make shafts for arrows or bolts.

inforciare: to fortify.

informator: a tutor.

infortiare: to fortify.

infossare: to surround with a ditch.

infra: further on, in a reference to a book or roll.

infraclusus. For inclusus.

infractura: breach; violation.

infraudulentus: without fraud.

infrontare: to stop.

infrontare sese: to resist.

infrunitas: madness.

infugare: to put to flight.

infula: a cassock; a coif.

infunditur: is flooded.

ingaignia: an engine; a machine; a trap.

ingenerabilis: without the power of procreation.

ingeniator: an engineer.

ingenium: a machine; an engine; a gin.

ingenuitas: freedom; nobility.

inglisheria: Englishry.

ingradatus: engrailed. See engrallatus.

ingrangiare: to deposit in a granary.

ingravare: to engrave; to demand.

ingrediatus: engrailed. See engrallatus.

ingressus: the relief paid by an heir on entering upon his lands.

ingrossare: to engross, to copy out fairly, or to buy up.

ingrossator: a copier; a wholesale dealer.

inguardus: a guard; a watchman.

inhabilitas: unwieldiness; unfitness; want of power.

inhokare, inhoc facere: to enclose.

inhokum: "any corner or part of a common field, ploughed up and sowed with oats, &c., and sometimes fenced in with a dry hedge, in that year wherein the rest of the same field lies fallow and common" (Jacob).

inhospitatio: lodging.

inhundredum: the central portion of a hundred (?).

inimicare: to be at enmity with.

injuriatio: wrongdoing; injury.

inlagare: to restore to the benefit of the law.

inlagatio: the restitution of an outlaw.

inlagatus: one who is not an outlaw.

inlantale: demesne land.

inlegiare: to satisfy the law; to restore to the benefit of the law.

innamiare: to distrain.

innamium, innamum: a pledge. See namium.

innire: to inn, to carry corn or hay.

innocare: to enclose.

innocum. See inhokum.

innodare: to knot; to bind.

innodius: the nave of a wheel.

innonia: an enclosure.

innoxiare: to purge; to absolve.

inofficiare: to provide with the services of the church.

inordinatus: intestate.

inpennatus: feathered.

inprisius, inprisus: an adherent.

inquesta, inquestum, inquisitio: an inquest; an inquisition.

inquisitor: a sheriff, coroner, &c., who has power to hold inquests; a retriever.

inrotulare, inrollare: to enrol.

inscalare: to climb by ladder, to scale.

insectator: a prosecutor.

insellatus: unsaddled.

insertum opus: bonded masonry.

inservire: to bring into slavery.

insigillare: to seal.

insigne: a coat of arms.

insilium: bad advice.

insolercia: unskilfulness.

insolutus: unpaid.

installare: to instal: to quit-claim, to compound.

installatio: a composition.

instauramentum. See instauratio.

instaurare: to stock (a farm).

instaurarius: a stockkeeper.

instauratio, instaurum: store; stock of a farm; furniture of a church, books, vestments, &c.

instirpare: to plant, to establish.

instita: a rochet.

institutio: institution, the granting by a bishop to a clerk of the cure of souls in his benefice.

instuffare: to stuff.

instructus: furniture; tools.

insubulus: a trendle.

insuetus: accustomed. For assuetus.

insula: a detached house or block of buildings; an aisle.

insularius: a keeper or porter of a detached house (insula).

intabulare: to write on tables; to register.

intachgara: a gore of land newly enclosed.

intassare: to heap up hay in cocks.

intendentia: submission.

interceptio: enterprise, aggression.

intercipere: to attack; to seize wrongfully.

interclaustrum: a walk or passage between cloisters (?).

interclausum: an enclosure.

interclausura: the setting of precious stones; chasing of metal.

interclusorius: enclosing.

interclusum. See interclausum.

intercommunicare: to intercommon, where the tenants of two manors use the commons of both.

interesse: interest.

interessens: being present at.

interessentia: interest; fee to those performing divine service.

interfinium: a space; the bridge of the nose.

interlinearis: between the lines.

interlocutorius: conversational.

interloingnium. See loingium.

interludium: play, mumming, as at Christmas.

intermedium: intercession.

internamentum: burial.

interpeditatus: not completely hambled. See expeditare.

interplacitare: to interplead.

interprisa: an attack.

interpugnare: to fight together.

interranea: the bowels.

intersignum: a token; a countersign.

intertenere: to entertain.

intertiare: to sequester.

intestinum opus: wainscot.

inthronizare: to enthrone.

intitulare: to enter in a book or list; to write titles on books; to entitle.

intorcinium: a torch.

intrare: to enter, or inn, i.e. drain and cultivate, marshes, which are then called innings.

intrastagnum: a seat in a row, a stall (?).

intrinsecus: a dweller within, a citizen, opp. to forinsecus.

introducere: to marry.

introitus: an introit, an antiphone sung while the priest is going to the altar.

intronizare: to enthrone.

intrussare: to pack up.

inumbliare: to trim the branches of trees.

invadiare: to mortgage; to pawn.

invadiatio: a mortgage.

invadimoniare: to pledge, to put in pawn.

inventarium: an inventory.

inventio: treasure trove.

inventorium: an inventory.

inveritare: to prove.

investio, investimentum: investiture.

investire: to invest, to give possession.

investitura: investiture.

involutorium: a kerchief.

inwardus: a watchman.

ipoporgium: an andiron.

irrectus: unjust.

irremiscibilis: unpardonable.

irreplegiabilis, irrepleviabilis: irreplevisable, that which ought not to be replevied or delivered on sureties.

irrotulamentum: an enrolment.

irrotulare: to enrol.

irrotulatio: enrolling.

irrugire: to roar.

iter: the circuit, or eyre, of a judge.

iterans justiciarius: a justice in eyre.

iterare: to make a journey; to hold an eyre; to rejudge; to repeat.

iterato: again, repeatedly.

iteratus: repeated.

itineratio: a circuit or eyre.

itura: an alure. See alura.

ivernagium. See hibernagium.


in abeyance.

jactacula: a hawk's jesses.

jacti: jesses.

jactivus: one who loses by default.

jahones: furze, gorse.

jampnum, jannum: furze, gorse.

jantare: to breakfast.

jardinus: a garden.

jarellum: a barrier.

jarrum: a jar.

jarruyllium: a gutter.

jaula, &c. See gaola, &c.

jauones: furze (?).

jercia: a lamb.

jesa: a gisarme.

jetti: jesses.

jocale: a jewel.

jocarius: a jester.

jocillator: a juggler.

joellum: a jewel.

joppus: a fool.

jornale. See jornata.

jornancia: a day's work.

jornata: a day's work or journey; an acre of land. (Fr. journeau.)

Jovis dies: Thursday.

judaismus: Jewry.

judicator: a doomsman, a man called in to assist a Court in difficult cases, esp. in Cheshire.

jugulare: to yoke.

juguliettum: the neck.

jugum: a yoke of land, half a plough-land.

juisa, juisium: judgment; trial by ordeal or battle; execution; pillory.

jumentarius: a man in charge of mares.

jumentum: a mare.

juncare: to strew rushes.

juncata: cream cheese.

juncta: a joint.

junctum: a measure of salt.

junctura: jointure.

jupa: a petticoat; a gown open in front. O.E., a chymmer.

jupellum: a coat, a frock; a kind of banner.

jurata, juratio: a jury; a body of jurates.

jurator: a juror.

juratus: a jurate; a person in Bordeaux, Bayonne, and other French towns, equivalent to an alderman in England; also in Maidstone for a time in the 17th century aldermen were called jurates.

jurista: a lawyer.

jurnale: a diary. See jornata.

jurnedum: a day's journey.

justa, justea: a joust, a tournament; a flagon.

justicia: jurisdiction; a fine; right, due; a justiciary or justice; a joust.

justiciabilis: under jurisdiction.

justiciare: to bring to trial; to exercise or administer justice; to compel, to punish.

justiciare se: to appear or plead before a justice.

justiciaria: the office of justice or justiciary; a writ to justices; the day when they sit.

justiciarius: a justice.

justificare: to bring to trial.

justificator: a compurgator.

justitiaria. See justiciaria.

justitium: cessation from the exercise of justice.

justorium: a mill clapper.

juttare: to jut out.


kaia, kaium:
a quay; a wharf.

kaiagium: toll paid for unloading goods at a wharf; quayage.

kalendae, &c. See calendae.

kaneva: canvas.

kanevacius: with canvas mail. "Mail" is the word used for the plumage of a hawk over a year old.

karetta: a cart.

karisma: grace.

karistia: dearth.

karrata: a cartload.

karula: a carrel, a small square chamber or cell, sometimes found in cloisters.

karvana: a caravan.

karvannum: a baggage train.

katallum. See catallum.

kauma: thatch.

kayus, kaya: a quay; a wharf.

kebbatus multo: a worthless sheep, a kebber.

kembelina: a kemeling, or keeler, a tub.

kemmotus: a cymwd or comot, the quarter of a cantref. See cantreda.

kernellare: to embattle, to crenellate.

kernellum: a battlement; a pinnacle.

keveronus. See cheveringus.

kidellus: a kiddle or kettle, a contrivance for catching fish set in a weir.

killagium: keelage, the right of demanding money for ships lying in a harbour.

kintale: a weight, about 100 lbs. See quintale.

kiprus: kipper, of fish.

kivilla: a pin.

klammator. See hlammator.

knipulus: a knife.

knopa: a knob; a knop.

kokettus. See cokettus.

kranagium. See cranagium.

kunupulus: the clapper of a bell.

kydellus. See kidellus.


liability to slip.

labina: a marsh; a fen.

laborarius: a labourer.

laccus: a lock (of hair or wool).

laceatus: fringed; laced.

lacescibilis: weary.

lacerta: a fathom.

lacinia: a lappet.

lacista: a cade of herring.

lacta: defect in weight; lack.

lactagium: rent for milch cows.

lactare: to lack.

lacticinium: milky food.

lactum: alloy.

lacum: lack.

lacunar: a candle beam.

lada: purgation; a watercourse, lode; a load; a lathe, a division of a county.

ladiare: to purge oneself of a crime.

laedorium: reproach.

laestum: a lathe. See leda.

laga: a lane; law.

lagemannus: a lawman, a judge.

lagena: a gallon, an eighth of a bushel.

laghdagha: a law-day.

laghelmotus: a law hallmote.

laia: a broad way in a wood; a wild sow.

laicus: a layman.

laidare. See ladiare.

lairvita: punishment for incontinence.

lambella: a label (heraldic).

lambriscare, lambrissare, lambruscare, lamburchare: to wainscot; to ceil; to ornament with fretwork.

lamen: a plate, a blade. (For lamina.)

lampreda: a lamprey (petromyzon marinus), sometimes a lampern (petromyzon fluviatilis).

lampro: a lampern.

lanarius: a woolen draper.

lanceare: to extend, to abut (of land).

lancearia: a loophole for thrusting lances through; a long narrow ship.

lanceicia: an adjective applied to hides. (Pat. 14 H. iij., p. 2, m. 6).

lancentagium, lancettagium: a base or servile tenure.

lancetus, lancetta: a tenant holding by such a tenure. (A.S. landsaeta or landsittend.) At Bury St. Edmunds the lancetti had to clean out certain chambers in the abbey.

lanciator: keeper of lances in the Tower.

landa: a lawn; land.

landea: a ditch for draining a marsh.

lanerius, lanerus: a lanner (falco lanarius or feldeggi). In the Middle Ages used for the female.

langabulum: tax or rent from land.

langellum: swaddling clothes.

langemannus: the lord of a manor.

langeolum, langeolus: a woolen shirt, reaching to the knees, worn by monks.

laniarius. See lanerius.

lanlordus: a landlord.

lano niger: a kind of base coin.

lanterium: the top of a steeple.

lanterna: a lantern.

lapicidium: a stone quarry.

lappatus: shaggy.

lappiare: to lop.

lardanarium, lardarium: a larder; a salting house.

lardanarius, lardarius: a larderer, or clerk of the kitchen.

lardearium: a larder.

lardenarius. See lardanarius.

larderarius. See lardanarius.

larduarium: a larder.

lardum: bacon.

largitio: largesse.

larricinium: robbery, larceny (latrocinium).

lassatinus: an assassin.

lasta, lastum: a last, a measure used for fish, hides, corn, wool, &c.

lastagium: custom paid for wares sold by the last; ballast. See lestagium.

lastum: a lathe, a division of a county.

lata: a lath; a latch.

lateranea: a bedfellow; a wife.

laterna (lanterna): a prison in a convent.

laterare: to lie sideways (of land).

latha: a lath.

lathamus. See latomus.

latia: framework.

laticium: lattice.

latinarius: an interpreter, a latimer or latiner.

latius: a lath.

latomia: masonry.

latomus: a stonecutter.

latro: the right of punishing thieves.

latronissa: a feminine robber.

latta: a lath.

latthacio: lathing work.

lattrinum, lattunum: latten.

latunatus: made of latten.

latunum: latten.

laturia: a book containing the Litany.

latus: a sidesman.

laubia: a porch, a gallery.

laudare: to arbitrate.

laudator: an umpire.

laudes: Psalms 148, 149, 150.

laudum: an award.

lavandaria: a laundry; a lavatory.

lavatorium: a lavatory; a laundry; sometimes used for piscina.

laxa: a leash.

laxis: an implement used in cookery.

laya: a wild sow.

lecator: a person of bad character, a lecher.

leccacitas: lechery.

leccator: a lecher.

lechia: rushes or sedge.

lecia: a leash.

lecteria. See litera.

lectica: litter for cattle.

lectio: a lesson.

lectionarium: a book containing lessons, composed by St. Jerome; or the epistles read at mass.

lectis: a brother's daughter.

lectisternium: bedding; a mattrass.

lectoratus: the office of reader, one of the minor orders.

lectorium: a reading-desk; a lectern.

lectrinum. See lectorium.

lecturire: to lecture.

lecturium. See lectorium.

leda: a lathe, a division of a county.

ledo, ledona: tide.

lega: alloy. See also leuca.

legalitas: status as a lawful man; jurisdiction.

legamannus: a lawful man, or man of law.

legancia. See ligancia.

legatarius: legetary; a legatee; a legate.

legatia: legation; the district over which a legate has jurisdiction.

legatus a latere: a legate sent by the Pope with the amplest authority.

legatus natus: a legate in ordinary, an archbishop or bishop possessing legatine authority in his diocese.

legenda: a book containing the lessons for church service, or the lives of the saints.

legia: the hanging part of the ear.

legiosus: litigious.

legius. See ligeus.

legrewita: a fine for adultery.

lemniscus: a label (heraldic).

lenga: a ling (asellus longus).

leones: false coin prohibited by Edw. I.

lepa: a lip, or lepe, a basket holding about two-thirds of a bushel.

lepidare: to speak fair.

leporarius: a greyhound.

leporium: a hare-warren.

leprosaria: a lazarhouse.

lesca: a slice.

lescare: to slice.

lesia: a leash.

lessa: a legacy; a lease.

lessia: a leash.

lesta, lestum: a last; a lathe. See lasta.

lestagium: toll paid at a port on landing goods; or at a market or fair for licence to remove goods.

lestum: a lathe, a division of a county.

lesura: a leasowe, a pasture.

leta: a court-leet.

letania: a litany.

leuca: a league, 1,500 paces, or 480 perches; sometimes used for a mile, and other distances; a covenant.

leucata: a league; banlieue.

leuga. See leuca.

leugata. See leucata.

leugator: a scout or forager (?).

levabilis: leviable.

levanum: leavened bread.

levare: to collect, to levy; to remove, to carry hay; to make hay.

levare mercatum: to hold a market.

levator: a lever.

levellus: level.

leverarius: a harrier.

leverio, breve de: writ of relief.

levescere: to become light.

levia: a span.

levinarius: a lymehound, "a leviner."

levita: a deacon.

lex: sometimes used for ordeal.

lezura: a leasowe, a pasture.

liardus: dapple grey.

libellare: to put in writing; to convey by charter.

libelli supplicum, magister: Master of Requests.

libellus: a declaration; a libel; a charter.

liber lapis: freestone.

libera: delivery of a portion of grass or corn to a tenant who has been engaged in cutting it.

liberare: to deliver.

liberata: a gift; livery. The word "clothing" was used for the liverymen of a City Company as late as the Stuart period.

liberate: a writ ordering a payment to be made, commencing with this word.

liberatio. See liberata.

liberatura. See liberata.

libertare: to set free.

libertatio: freedom.

libitina: a bier, a hearse.

libra: a pound, in weight or money.

librarium: a library.

librarius: a scribe; a librarian.

librata terrae: land worth 20s. yearly; 4 oxgangs, or 52 acres.

librillare: to chatter; to babble.

liceae: lists; barriers.

licentiare: to give leave; to take leave of.

licentiatio: leave.

licere: to license.

lichinius: the wick of a candle.

lichinus: a candlestick.

lichitus: an oil flask.

liciae: lists; barriers.

liciarium: a bid, in dealing.

liciatorium: a loom.

licitamentum: a bid.

liemarius: a lymehound.

liga: a league, a confederation.

ligamen: a bond; an oath.

ligancia: allegiance, homage.

ligatus: a liegeman.

ligeancia: allegiance; breach of allegiance.

ligeus, ligius: liege; lawful; simple, unconditioned.

lignagium: the right of cutting fuel in woods.

lignamen: timber.

lignarius: a wharfinger.

ligniculum: a small image of wood.

lignile: a wooden cupboard.

lignipodium: a wooden leg; a stilt.

ligula: a fillet, a file.

limas: an apron.

limbus: a shallow boat; a punt.

liminiscus: a point or stop in a MS.

limo: a cartshaft.

limus: an apron.

lina lintea: "Anglice lynnen yarne." (Pat. 8 Jac. I., pt. 5, No. 3.)

linare: to line.

linarium: a place where flax is grown.

linealiter: in a straight line.

lineare: to line.

lingius: of linen.

lingua: loin.

linguaris miles: a pursuivant; a knight of the tongue, i.e. a lawyer, &c., as opposed to a knight of the sword, a soldier.

liniare: to line.

linteamen, linthiamen: linen stuff; a sheet; an apron; a neckerchief; a ruffband.

linura: lining.

linus: clay.

lipsana: relics.

liquiritia: liquorice.

lira: a measure of land (Yorkshire).

liripipium: the tail of a hood, or the peak of a shoe.

lista: an edge; a strip; a catalogue; lists for a tournament.

lisura: list (of cloth).

litera, literia: litter, straw; a litter; bedclothes.

litiae. See liceae.

litor: a dauber.

litteria, litura. See litera.

lixus: boiled.

lobbum: a large fish in the North Sea, of the cod species.

lobia: a porch; a gallery.

lobium: a portico; a lobby.

locagium: a lease; rent.

locare: to let; to hire.

loccum: a lock on a river.

lochia: a stone-loath (cobitis barbatula).

locutorium: a parlour.

loda: a load.

lodium: a louvre.

loerenium: a rein.

loga: a truss (?) of hay.

loggiare: to cut wood into logs (?).

logia: a lodge; an outhouse.

logiare: to lodge, to dwell.

logium. See logia.

loingium, loingnium: a lewne, or lune, a strap attached to a hawk's jesses.

lokettum: a locket; a flock of wool.

lolidodium: a cart saddle.

longellus: a coverlet; a long cloak.

lonnia: a loin.

lopare: to lop.

loquela: imparlance; a plea; a suit.

loquenda: a point reserved by a court for consideration.

lorarius: a lymehound.

lorema: a bridle bit.

loreinum: a bridle rein.

lorengum, lorenna, lorenum. See loreinum.

lorica: a hauberk.

loridium: a belt.

lorimaria: lorimery, bits, buckles, and other metal work for harness.

lorimarius: a lorimer or loriner; a spurrier; a girdler.

lotorium: a wash-hand basin.

lottum et scottum: lot and scot.

lovera, loverium: a louvre.

lucarius: a woodward; a parker.

lucea: a taper.

lucellus: a bier, a hearse.

lucernarius: a watch dog.

luces: pike (esox lucius) (pl.).

lucina: a gore in a dress.

lucubrum: a lantern.

lucupletare: to enrich.

ludator: a player.

ludricus: a beast of burden.

ludum: a device; a motto.

luigna: a loin.

lumbale, lumbare: a belt, a girdle.

luminarius: a dealer in lights; a chandler.

luminio: lighting.

lunae, dies: Monday. Lunae is also used for Monday by itself, not declined, as--infra Lunae, before Monday; and the same is true of the names for the other days of the week.

lunarius: a watch dog.

lunda: a bind of eels, i.e. 250; two timbers of skins, i.e. 80.

lundeni: men whose service was on Monday.

lundinarium: a quarter of a virgate.

lunivagus girus: the moon's orbit.

luparius: a wolfhunter.

luplicetum: a hop garden.

lupulatus: made of hops.

lupus: a cutaneous eruption.

lura: a bung.

lurale: a lure.

lusceus: a pike (esox lucius).

lussus, lusus: a brother-in-law.

luta: a lute.

luter: a basin, a laver, a font.

lutrarius: an otter hound.

lutrea: an otter.

lutricius: an otter hound.

luuebona: work done gratuitously.

luvare: a louvre.

luvereticus canis: a wolfhound.

luverus: a louvre.

lymputta: a lime pit.


See macellarius.

macea: a mace.

macellarius, macerarius: a victualler; a fleshmonger.

maceria: the outer wall of a convent.

machecaria: a meat market.

machecarius. See macellarius.

machecollare: to add machecoulis to a castle.

macia: a mace.

macuellus: a small mace.

macula: mail; silver halfpence.

madera: madder.

madialis: adj. of May.

madius: the month of May.

maeremium, maerennium: timber.

magnagium: a house.

magnalis: great.

magthura: same as mangura (?).

mahemiare: to maim.

mahemium: mayhem, maim.

mahumeria: a mosque.

maialis: adj. of May.

maignagium: a brazier's shop.

maior: a mayor.

maiorare: to increase, to improve.

maioria, mairia: mayoralty.

maisneda: a household.

maisremum, maisremium: timber.

makerellus: a mackerel (scomber scombrus).

mala: a budget for carrying letters; a mail; beech mast (?).

malandrinus: a pirate.

malecredere: to suspect.

maleficare: to bewitch.

maleficium: witchcraft.

maleficus: a wizard.

maletta: a small mail or trunk.

malignare: to maim.

malina: spring tide.

mallardus: a mallard, the male of anas boschas.

mallia: mail.

mallium: a mesch.

malmaria: a mosque.

maltra: a combe, 4 pecks.

malveisina: an engine to cast stones.

mana: an old woman.

managium: a house.

manbota: compensation paid for murder to the victim's master.

manca: a square gold Saxon coin, value thirty pence, in the 12th century, from 6s. to 7s. 6d.; a silver coin, 1/4 ounce; a mark; a fishing boat; a defect.

manceps: a manciple, clerk of the kitchen.

mancipulus: a panier man (Middle Temple).

mancinus: lefthanded.

mancus: the curve of a sickle or scythe.

mancusa. See manca.

mandatarius: a mandatory, a commissioner.

mandatum: maundy; an extra allowance of food in a convent; footwashing in a monastery on Saturday.

mandibile festum: a feast.

mandra: a shed, a hovel.

maneleta: tares, weeds.

manens: a tenant who was confined to the land.

manensis: a house, a farm.

manerium: a manor.

manga, manganum: a mangonel, for casting stone.

mangerium: the right of receiving food, &c., at the house of a tenant.

mangiatorium: a manger.

mangonale, mangonelus: a mangonel, for casting stones.

mangonare: to traffic at a market.

mangonelus, mangonellus. See mangonale.

mangura: food.

maniamentum: administration of justice; possession.

maniculare: to handcuff.

maninga: jurisdiction; a court of law. (A.S. manung.)

manipularis: a corporal, in the time of James I.

manipulum: a maniple, worn by a priest on the left arm.

mannagium: a house.

mannire: to cite.

mannus: a horse.

manopera: a day's work.

mansa: a farm; a dwelling-house; sometimes a hide of land.

manser: a bastard.

mansia, mansio. See mansa.

mansionarius: a harbinger; a sexton.

mansum, mansura, mansus. See mansa.

mantea: a mantle.

mantellum: a cloak; a mantlet.

mantiare: to fit a handle to.

mantica: a wallet.

mantile: a long robe.

mantum: a cloak, a mantle.

manuale: a manual, a book containing what is necessary for the administration of sacraments and sacramentals.

manualis obedientia: sworn obedience.

manubriator: a maker of hilts or handles, a hafter, a helver.

manucapere: to mainprise, to become mainpernor for.

manucaptio: mainprise, surety.

manucaptor: a mainpernor, bail.

manulevare: to raise (money).

manumola, manumula: a handmill.

manuopera: stolen goods taken on a thief; cattle and farm implements; handwork.

manuoperarius: a handicraftsman.

manupastus: a domestic servant; domestic service.

manupes: a foot in length.

manupositum: a deposit; an earnest.

manurare: to manure.

manus: used for an oath.

manusmola: a handmill.

manus mortua: mortmain.

manutenentia: maintenance; the unlawful upholding of a person or cause.

manutenere: to maintain.

manutensionis pileum: a cap of maintenance.

manutentor: a maintainor. See manutenentia.

manutentum: a handle.

manutergium: a handwipe, a towel.

manzer: a bastard.

mapparius: a keeper of linen.

mara: a lake, a mere; a moor.

marabotinus: a gold coin used by the Arabs in Spain; an account temp. Hen. III states "marabotinus seu talentum." In later times it appears to mean a maravedi.

marca: a mark, a silver coin, 8 oz. troy weight, in money 13s. 4d.

marca auri: in 1130 was worth 6l.; in Stephen's reign, 9 silver marks; in the reign of Henry II, 12l.; in John's reign, 10 silver marks.

marcanda villa: a market town.

marcapetum: a footstool.

marcarda villa: a market town.

marcare: to mark; to take by right of letters of marque.

marcata: a rent of a mark.

marcator: a merchant.

marcatum: a market. See mercatum.

marcatus: a rent of a mark.

marcha. See marca.

marchalsia: the Marshalsea, a prison in London.

marchantesia: merchandise.

mercheium: a market.

marchesia: the March; the Court of the March.

marcheta. See merchetum.

marchetum: a market.

marchia: the March or border land between two countries.

marchiare: to adjoin, to border on.

marchiatus: a marquis.

marchio: a marcher; a marquis.

marchionatus: a marquisate.

marchionissa: a marchioness.

marchisus, marchisius: a marcher, a dweller on a March.

Marcialis: in the month of March.

marcula: diminutive of marca.

marearchus: an admiral.

maremium: timber.

marescalcia, marescallia, marescaltia: the right of taking fodder for horses; the office of marshal; the Marshalsea, London; a stable.

marescalcus, marescaldus, marescallus: a farrier; a marshal; a harbinger.

mareschum: a marsh.

maretum: a marsh.

margia: a border, a margin.

Mariale: a book containing Hours of the B. V. M.

marietare: to marry.

marina: the seashore.

marinarius: a seaman, a mariner.

marinellus: a mariner.

mariola: a small image of the Virgin Mary.

marisarchus. See marearchus.

mariscalcia. See marescalcia.

mariscus: a marsh.

maritagium: marriage; a marriage portion; the right of giving in marriage.

maritatio: a gift by the husband to the wife on marriage.

marla: marl.

marlare, marliare: to spread marl over land; to dig marl.

marleputtum: a marlpit.

marlera, marlerium, marletum: a marlpit.

marlia: marl.

marlura: marling.

marna: some clay used in pottery; marl.

marneria: a marlpit; a moat.

marqua: the right of reprisals, marque.

marquezius: a marquis.

marquisia: a marchioness.

marquisius: a marquis.

marra: a moor; an iron tool like a pickaxe.

marscallare: to do a farrier's work.

martellus: a hammer.

marterina pellis: marten fur.

martilogare: to insert in a register of martyrs.

martilogium: a register of martyrs (martyrologium).

martina: a marten (martes foina).

martineta: a kingfisher (alcedo ispida).

Martis dies: Tuesday.

martologium. See martilogium.

martrina, martrix, martro: a marten.

marutia: some additional outwork to a castle.

masagium: a messuage.

masca: a masque.

mascea: a mace.

maserus: a maser, a bowl, often of wood, especially maple.

masnagium: a dwelling-place.

massa: a club; a mass.

massare: to chew; to hammer.

mastinus, mastivus: a mastiff.

mastruca: a cloak of skin, fur inside.

mastrum: a kneading trough.

mastus: a mast.

masuagium. See messuagium.

masuella: a small club.

masura. See mansa.

matare: to mate at chess.

matinellum: breakfast.

matracia, matracium: a mattress; quiet.

matria: a pantry.

matricula: a list; a register.

matrimonium: marriage; inheritance descending by marriage.

matrina: a godmother.

matutini: lauds, in the Rule of St. Benedict.

matutinale: a book of lauds.

matutinellum: breakfast.

maupigyrnum: a sort of pottage.

maviscus: a thrush (Turdus musicus).

maxima: an axiom; a maxim.

maximus senex: oldest.

mazenarius: a keeper of mazers.

mazonarius: a mason.

meandrum: a rubbish hole.

meanialis. See menialis.

meatim: in my own way.

medaria: a place for making or stowing mead.

medarius: a mead maker, or seller; an official in charge of the medary in a convent.

mederia: a house where mead is sold.

mediamnis: a dyke; a canal.

medianetum: arbitration.

meda: mead.

medicus digitus: the third finger.

medie manus, homo: a man of low rank.

medietas: mesnalty, the right of the mesne lord.

meditentum: the cap of a flail.

meditullium: middle.

medius: mean; mesne.

medlea, medieta, medletum: a fray; a medley.

medo: mead.

megadomesticus: a chief officer of the household, a major domo.

megarus: mackerel (scomber scombrus).

megucarius: a white tawyer, a leather dresser.

meida: madder.

meimmatus: maimed.

mela: a measure of corn and cheese (Scotch).

melleta. See medlea.

mellibrodium: bracket or bragwort, a drink flavoured with honey and spice.

mellitarius: a beekeeper.

melotus: a badger (meles taxus).

memorandorium: a catalogue.

memorator: a remembrancer.

memprisa. See manucaptio.

menagium: a family.

mencia. Perhaps an error for meneia.

meneia: appearance; obeisance (?).

menestrallus: an artisan; a minstrel.

menetum: a wooden horn.

menialis: menial. From moenia.

meniare: to wall.

mensacula: a carving kinfe.

mensura: a bushel; standard measure; a candle of the length of or perhaps image in wax of a sick person or limb sent to a shrine.

mensurare: to measure for the purpose mentioned above.

menusa: reeds, rushes (?).

mera: a marsh; a mere; unpressed wine. (Fr. mère goutte.)

merarius: a midday meal.

merca. See marca.

mercancia, mercandisia: merchandise.

mercandizare: to trade.

mercantia: merchandise.

mercatoria villa: a market town.

mercatum, mercatorium: a market.

mercearius: a mercer.

mercenarius: a hireling.

merceria: mercery.

mercerius, mercerus: a mercer.

merchandizare: to trade.

mercheta, merchetum: a fine payable by a villein for licence to give his daughter in marriage, and in Scotland at his own marriage.

mercia: traffic; a fine.

merciamentum: a fine.

merciarius: a mercer.

mercimoniatus: impost on merchandise; custom.

mercinarius: a mercer.

mercum: a mark, a sign.

Mercurii dies: Wednesday.

meremium: timber.

merendula: an afternoon refreshment, a bever.

mergulus: a sink, of a lamp or a lavatory.

mergus: a bucket; a water dog.

merketum: a market.

merlare. See marlare.

merlengus, merlingus: a ling (asellus longus).

merscum: a marsh.

meruca: a cod (morrhua vulgaris).

merulus: a merlin (falco aesalon).

mesagium. See messuagium.

mescheninga: wrongful prosecution (miskenning).

mesfacere: to do wrong.

meslea, mesleia, mesleta: a fray, a melee.

mesprisio. See misprisio.

messaria: the office and profits of a farm bailiff.

messarius: a mower or reaper; a farm bailiff.

messina: harvest time.

messuagium: a messuage; a dwelling-house.

mestaria, mestera, mesterum: art; trade; mistery.

mestelenium: the remains of a meal given as alms.

mesticare, mestificare: to make sad.

mestilo: mesline, wheat and rye mixed.

meda: a mete, a boundary.

metallifodina: a mine.

metebona: work done for food.

meya: a stack or heap of hay or corn, a mow.

micatorium: a grater.

michia: a loaf.

miles: a knight.

miliare: a thousand; a mile; a milestone.

miliatium: millet.

milicentum: a millstream.

militare: to be knighted.

militia: knighthood; a knight's fee; a body of knights or soldiers; tenure by knight service.

milium: millet.

millenarium: a thousand.

milliare: a thousand; a mile; a milestone.

millo: a hayrick.

millum: a hound's collar.

milwellus. See mulvellus.

mimilogium: mistrelsy.

mina: a measure of corn, &c., 3 to 7 skeps; a measure of land 120 ft. square; a measure of wine; a mine.

minagium: toll paid on corn sold by the mina.

minare: to drive; to guide.

minaria: a mine.

minator: a miner.

minera: a mine, ore.

minerarius: a miner.

mineria: a mine; a quarry.

minetarius: a miner.

miniator: an illuminator.

minietum verrum: miniver.

minigunga: warning (A.S. mynegung.)

minister: a thane; a bailiff.

ministeriales: traders.

ministerium: a trade; a credence, among Carthusians, Cistercians and Premonstratensian canons.

ministralcia: minstrelsy.

ministrallus, ministraulus: a minstrel.

minorissa: a Minoress, a nun of S. Clare.

minstrellus: a minstrel. See menestrallus.

minitor: a miner.

minorare: to lessen.

minta: mint.

minuare: to damage.

minuere: to let blood.

minuta: a draft, a minute.

minutio: bleeding.

misa: agreement; arbitration; cost, expense.

miscuare: to mix.

misdocere: to misinform; to misadvise.

misellus: a leper.

misericordia: an arbitrary fine; a gratuitous portion of food given in addition to commons; a hall in a monastery where additional commons were given; a dagger; a wooden turn up seat in the choir of a church.

misevenire: to fail.

misprisio: misprision, culpable concealment of crime.

missa: mass. See also misa.

missale: a massbook, a missal.

missaticum: a message.

missaticus: a messenger.

missum: a gift given to the King or Prince of Wales on entering Wales.

missura: religious ceremonies at death.

missurium: a dish, or mess.

mistera, misterium: trade; mistery (ministerium).

mitra: a kerchief.

mitta: a measure of corn, &c.

mixtilio. See mestilo.

mixtorium: a rudder, an implement used in mixing malt.

mixtum: breakfast of bread and wine in a monastery; translated "pottage" in the Rule of St. Benedict, cap. xxxviij. (1875).

modiatio: duty paid on wine or corn, measured by the muid.

moeta: a half.

mola: a millstone.

molatio: multure.

molda: a mould.

moldera, moldra: multure.

molendinarius: a miller.

molendinator: a miller.

molendinum: a mill.

molestra: a sheepskin.

molinum: a mill.

molitura, moltura: grinding; corn taken to a mill to be ground; grist; payment for grinding, multure; a lord's right to make tenants grind at his mill.

molliare: to knead.

mollicio: grinding.

molneda: a millpool.

molta: toll paid by vassals for grinding corn at the lord's mill.

molumentum: toll for grinding.

molutus (molitus): ground.

monaca, monacha: a nun.

monachaliter: in monkish fashion.

monacare, monachare: to make a man a monk; to receive him into a convent.

monacus, monachus: a monk.

monagium: error for menagium.

monasterialis: monastic.

monasterium: a monastery, a minster.

moneta: money; a mint.

monetacio: coining, minting.

monetagium: mintage, right of coining; tribute paid by tenants to the lord that he should not change the money he had coined.

monetare: to coin; to mint.

monetarius: a moneyer; a coiner; a banker.

monetatio: coining.

monetum: a mint.

moniale: a nunnery; a mullion.

monialis: a nun.

monstra: a muster.

monstrantia: a reliquary, a monstrance, or ooster.

monstrare: to muster.

monstratio: a muster.

monstrum: a muster; a reliquary.

moota: a seamew or seagull. (Fr. mouette.) See also mota, muta.

mora: a moor; a mere.

moracum: pure wine (merum). See moratum.

moragium: rent or service for tenure of moorland.

moratum: a drink, supposed to be wine flavoured with mulberries.

mordaculum: the tongue of a buckle.

moretum: brown cloth. See also moratum.

morgabulum: rent of moorland.

morgagium: mortgage.

morgagifa. See morganegiba.

morganegiba: the husband's gift to the wife on the wedding-day, or the day after.

moriatio: residence.

morina: murrain.

morosus: boggy; delaying.

morsella: a small piece [of land].

morsellatim: piecemeal.

morsellus. See morsella.

morsus: a morse; a clasp.

mortarium: mortar; a mortar; a stone or metal cup to hold a night light; a lamp over a grave or shrine. See also mortuarium.

mortellum. See mortarium.

mortgagium: a mortgage.

morticinium: murrain.

mortificare: to alienate in mortgage.

mortitivus: dead of murrain.

mortizare. See amortizare.

mortua sesona: close time for foxes, in the forests, 1 May to 1 Sept.

mortuarium: a bequest to the testator's parish church in recompense for tithes not duly paid; a duty payable to the lord on the death of a tenant.

mortuum vadium: a mortgage.

morua, moruca: a codfish (morrhua vulgaris).

mos: custom, in the sense of tax on goods entering the kingdom.

mossa: a moss or bog.

mota: a mote; a moot; a pack of hounds; a moat; a castle mound.

motaculum: a rudder, an implement used in mixing malt.

motibilis: moveable; a vagrant.

motivum: a motive.

motor: a mootman.

motulinus: mutton.

motum: a moat.

motura. See molitura.

mua: mews.

mucetta: a hole.

mueta: a watchtower; mews; a pack of hounds.

muffulae: fur gloves; muffs.

mugettum: musk.

muiia: mews.

muillo: a haycock or hayrick.

muiolus (Fr. muid): a measure of corn, salt, &c., about 5 1/2 qrs.

mulcto. See multo.

mulecius: a mullet (mullus barbatus or mugil capito).

mulier: lawful issue.

mulio, mullo: a hayrick.

mulneda: a mill pool.

multa: a fine.

multiplicium: a cloak.

multo: a sheep, a wether; a French gold coin bearing the Agnus Dei, worth 12s. 6d. Tournois; an engine of war.

multoties: many times.

multra, multrum: a pail.

multura. See molitura.

mulvellus: melwell, milwin, greenfish, perhaps coalfish (merlangus carbonarius) or pollock (merlangius pollachius).

muncellus: a mound, a heap of corn, sometimes 10 sheaves.

mundare: to purge by ordeal.

mundifractura: mundbrech, breach of enclosures, privileges, or the king's peace.

municeps: a magistrate of a town.

munimen: a grant, a charter.

munimenta: records.

muntator: a soldier serving with a knight, on the Welsh March.

muragium: toll exacted in a town for repairing the walls.

murale: a wall.

muratio: a walled town.

murdra: murder.

murdrare: to murder.

murdrator: a murderer.

murdredum: murder; tax imposed for the escape of a murderer.

murdrire: to murder.

murdritor: a murderer.

murdrum: murder.

murena: a lamprey (petromyzon marinus).

murilegus: a cat.

muripellus, muripula: a buttress.

murra: a maser.

murrena: murrain.

murrus: a maser.

murtrarius: a murderer.

murtrum: murder.

musardus: lazy, stupid.

musca: musk.

muscata nux: nutmeg.

muschettus: the male sparrow hawk (accipiter fringillarius; also called fragellus).

muscidus: mossy; mouldy.

muscula: a mussel.

museum, museolum: a study (room).

mussa: a moss or bog.

mussetum: a mossy place.

musta: must, unfermented wine.

mustrum: muster. See monstrum.

muta: a pack of hounds; a mew of hawks; moulting.

mutare: to mew hawks.

mutarius: mewed.

mutilamen: a mutilation, a maim.

muto. See multo.

mutulare (mutilare): to hamble. See expeditare.

mutulinus: mutton.

mutulus: a bracket; a corbell.

mutus, mutatus: mewed.

mystax: a moustache.

mysterium: mystery; sometimes used for mistery. See mistera.



naca: a small ship; a smack.

nacella, navicella: a skiff; a boat.

naivietas: naifty, bondage.

naivus. See nativus.

namare: to distrain; to take into custody.

namatio: distraining; impounding.

namiare. See namare.

namium, namma: distress; pledge.

nammiare, namtire: to distrain; to take into custody.

namum. See namium.

napa: a cloth; a napkin.

naparia: napery.

nappa: a rib.

napparius: a keeper of napery.

napta: tow.

narrator: an advocate.

nascella: a small ship.

nascula: a button.

nasellus: a small ship.

nassa: a kiddle or fishweel.

nata: a mat.

natale: the condition of a man.

Natalicium: the day of martyrdom of a Saint.

natalis dies: Christmas day.

Natalis Domini, tempus: Christmastide (temp. Car. II).

nativa: a born bondwoman; a nief.

native: by the tenure of a bondman.

nativus: a born serf, or bondman.

natta: a reed mat.

naulum: passage money by ship.

nauta: a sailor, a bargee.

navagium: the duty of carrying the lord's goods by ship.

navata: a ship load.

naviagium: navigation, sailing.

navicella, navicula: an incense cup in the shape of a boat.

navicularius: a shipowner; a shipwright.

navigalis: seafaring.

navigium: a fleet. See also navagium.

navis: the nave of a church; the same as navicella; an ounce.

navithalamus: a state barge.

nayvus. See nativus.

nebula: a wafer (bread).

nebularius: a baker of wafers.

nefrendus: a boar.

neotegeldum. See notegeldum.

nepos: a nephew.

nepta, neptis: a niece.

nequare. For necare, to kill.

nervicia: strength.

netus: a bondman (nativus).

nigellare: to ornament with black enamel.

nigra moneta: copper money.

nigromanticus: a necromancer.

nisus: a fish-hawk (falco haliaetus).

noa: a marshy pasture.

nobile: a noble, a gold coin value 6s. 8d.

noca, nocata: a nook of land, the quantity uncertain, in some places 12 1/2 acres.

noctanter: by night.

noctare: to be dark; to spend the night.

noctuatim: nightly.

nocturnum: religious service performed at night.

nocumentum: nuisance; damage.

nodare: to decree.

nodulus: a button.

noka. See noca.

nola: a small bell.

nona: none, from about 2 p.m. to vesper.

nonae: ninth part, paid to the church by church tenants.

nonagium: ninth part of moveable goods paid at death to the clergy.

nonna: a nun.

nonneria: a nunnery.

nonnus: word used by young monks when addressing elders.

nonsecta: a non-suit.

nontenura: nontenure.

Noragenus: Norwegian.

Northintus: Northern region.

nota: a note; a memorandum.

notarius: a notary; a scrivener.

notegeldum, noutegildum: payment for beasts on common pasture. The same as cornagium.

novale: newly tilled land.

novercare: to behave like a stepmother.

novitius: a novice.

numacius: a tollman.

numeralia: beads.

numerator: a teller.

nummata: a pennyweight; nummata terrae is the same as denariata; price.

nummosus: rich.

nummus: a penny.

nuncius: an apparitor; a sergeant; a beadle.

nundinae: a fair, or tournament.

nunna: a nun.

nutriciaria: a nursery.

nutrius: a foster child.


to disregard; also to obey.

obbatus: a jugful.

obediencia: any office in a monastery; a rent.

obedientialis, obedientiarius: an inferior officer in a convent; an advocate of a convent.

obgrunnire: to murmur at.

obiculum: a chace at tennis.

obitus: funeral service, or anniversary of death; obit.

oblata: an offering; a gift; a wafer; the Eucharistic bread. See obolata.

obligar: a garter.

obligatorium: obligation; a bond.

obnoxius: sometimes used for obnixus.

obolata: a halfpenny worth; a measure of land varying from half an acre to half a perch.

obolus: a halfpenny.

obrizus: pure, of metals.

obsella: a coffer (?).

obstaculum: a tribute.

obstinatus: deaf.

obstupare: to stop up.

obstupatio: stopping up.

obturacio: filling up; stopping up.

obulata. See obolata.

obventio: an offering; tithe; profit.

occasio: a tribute on a special occasion; a hindrance; a complaint.

occasionamentum: molestation.

occasionare: to molest.

occasionari: to be liable to some special tribute; to be hindered, vexed.

occatio: assart. See assartum.

octaba, octava: the eighth day after a feast, utas.

ocularium: the visor of a helmet.

oculus: a circular window.

odditorium: a miscellaneous collection; a lumber room.

odorisequus: hunting by scent.

oeconomicus: an administrator of property; an executor.

oeconomus: a treasurer.

ofasium: caudle.

offerenda: an offering; the sacrament of the Eucharist; an antiphone sung at that time.

offertorium: offerings; an offertory; a piece of cloth in which the offerings or the chalice is wrapped. See also offerenda.

officialis: one who exercises the jurisdiction of a bishop or archdeacon.

officiare: to serve.

officiarius. See officialis.

officiator: an officer.

officium: trade; an office, a room where a man works.

offrum: an offer.

ofnama: an enclosure.

olosa: a shad. See alosa.

olosericum: entirely of silk; bawdekyn.

olyverum ferri: a foundry (?); a heavy hammer worked by a treadle.

omelia: a homily.

omnimodus: of all sorts.

onophorium: a costrel, a wooden bottle.

opella: a shop.

operabile: a handicraft.

operabilis dies: a working-day.

operaria: the office of works.

operarius: a tenant who did bodily work for his lord; a clerk of the works.

operatio: a day's work.

operatus: chased.

opertius: not lawed (of a dog).

opertura: lining.

opilare: to hinder.

opilio: a shepherd; a bishop.

opirus: sour; mouldy (of bread).

opisie: harness.

oplondina: uplands.

oppidanus: the keeper of a town.

oppilio. See opilio.

opprimentum: oppression; also used for operimentum.

ora: ore; a Saxon coin worth 16d. to 20d.; an ounce.

orarium: a hem; a border; a kerchief; a stole. See horarius.

orator: an ambassador.

oratoriolum: an oriel or oriole.

orbi ictus: dry blows.

ordalium: ordeal.

ordeum: used for hordeum.

ordinale: an ordinal.

ordinarius: an ordinary, "he who hath the proper and regular jurisdiction, as of course and of common right."

ordinator testamenti: the administrator of a will.

ordinatus: in holy orders.

ordinium: posterity.

orditura: the warp in weaving.

ordolaium: ordeal.

oretenus: vocally, by word of mouth.

organa: a pair of organs.

oriolum: a portico; a gallery; an oriel.

oritimum: a clock.

ortellus, ortillus: a claw.

ortolagium: a garden plot.

ortus: used for hortus.

orynale: used for urinale.

osceptrus: a hawk.

osculatorium: a paxbrede, a small tablet to be kissed.

oseria: osiers.

osorium: a strickle.

ostagiamentum: security.

ostagiare: to give security or a hostage.

ostagius: a hostage.

ostensio: toll paid by tradesmen for leave to expose their goods for sale; a muster.

ostentatus: a muster.

ostiarius: an usher. See hostiarius.

ostigare: to release on security.

ostilium: a gate; an entrance.

ostria. See hospitalaria.

osturcus, osturus. See austur.

otriare: to grant.

oustitrix: a midwife.

outorius. See austur.

ovare: to lay eggs; to rejoice.

ovenana. See ofnama.

overhernissa: contumacy.

oversamessa: fine for neglecting to pursue malefactors.

oviale: a sheepfold; a sheepwalk.

oviare: used for obviare.

oxillare: to turn sour.


a collector of paagium.

paagium. See passagium, pavagium.

pacabilis: payable, passable.

pacagium: payment; pasture (?).

pacare: to pay.

pacatio: payment.

paccus: a pack, a bale.

paceri: to be at peace, be discharged.

pacificarius: an official at Benauge, in the 13th century.

padnagium. See pannagium.

paduencia: a paddock.

paga: payment.

paga: a country; a district; a county.

pagania: heathendom.

paganus: a heathen.

pagare: to pay.

pagella: a panel.

pageta, pagettus: a page (servant).

pagus. See paga.

paiare: to pay.

paisa: a wey. See waga.

paisso: pannage.

pakellum: a pack.

pala: a pale of wood; a pale (heraldic); a baker's peel.

palaciatum: the office of palator.

palacium: a palace; a palisade.

palafredus: a palfrey.

palatinus: a courtier.

palator: a paler, a forest officer.

palchum: a stage; a floor, a story. (Ital. palco.)

palefridus: a palfrey.

palestarius: a paler.

palettus: a palet, a headpiece of cuir bouilli.

palicium: a paling.

palistrum, palizium: a paling.

palla: a canopy; a funeral pall; an altar cloth.

pallagium: a duty paid to lords for loading or unloading ships at their ports.

pallamentum: used for parlamentum.

palliare: to cover.

pallium: a pall, a pontifical or archiepicopal vesture; an altar cloth.

palma: tennis.

palmarius: a pilgrim, a palmer.

palmata: a bargain; a handful or handbreadth; a stroke on the hand.

palmatia: a palm grove.

palmiferus: a palmer or pilgrim.

palmitare: to bargain.

palmula: a rudder, an implement used in mixing malt.

paltenerium: a pautener, a purse.

paltenerius, paltonarius: proud, savage.

palum: a pale, paling.

pana: a counterpane.

panagia: holy bread.

panarius: a place in a church where bread was distributed to the poor.

panatus: fortified with piles (?).

Pandicularis dies: All Saints day.

pandoxare: to brew, or sell beer.

pandoxator: a brewer.

pandoxatorium: a brewhouse.

panduca: a bagpipe.

panella, panellum: a panel; a list of jurors' names.

panellare: to empanel.

panellus: a panel; a cushion; a net; a small loaf.

panerius: a panier, a breadbasket.

panesculus: a small loaf.

panetaria: a pantry.

panetarius, panetrarius: a pantler, or panter.

panetria: a pantry. In some cases this word is used as if it were derived from pannus, not panis.

panicius: a baker.

panigeria: a fair or market.

panna: squared timber supporting the rafters, or a gutter between the roofs of two houses; a cross beam. (Fr. panne).

pannagiare: to pasture pigs; to pay pannage.

pannagium: pannage; mast; payment or licence for feeding swine in a forest.

pannarius: a clothier.

pannicipium: a closet, a press.

panniculus: a napkin.

pannideusium: a button.

pannucia: party-cloth, cloth of divers colours.

pannus: cloth; a weaver's spittle or spool.

pantaria, pantria: a pantry.

paonacius: purple.

papa: a pope.

papatum: pap, child's food.

papatus: popedom; papacy.

papilio: a tent, a pavilion.

papilonarius: a tentmaker.

papirium: a record room; a register.

par: a pair; a peer.

par civitatis: a citizen; a freeman.

parachinus, parachina: a parishioner.

parafredus: a palfrey.

paragium: equality of condition or property; a tenure between parceners.

paramentum: equipment; ornament.

paraphernalia: furniture, clothes, &c., which a widow may claim in addition to her dower or jointure.

paraphonista: a chorister.

paraphus: a paragraph.

pararia. See petraria.

pararius: a cloth dresser.

parasceue: Good Friday; any Friday.

parastica: the step of a mast.

paraticum. See paragium.

parcaminarius: a seller of parchment.

parcare: to enclose.

parcarius: a parker; a pinder; a foldkeeper.

parcella: a parcel (of land).

parcella terrae: "Anglice vocata: A. Noke Land." (Valor Eccl. iij. 35.)

parcellare: to parcel out.

parcenarius: a joint holder of land, a coparcener; parcenary.

parcopollex: a shoe-horn.

parcus: a park; a pound, a pinfold.

pardona: pardon.

pardonare: to pardon.

pardonatio: pardon.

pargulum: a parclose.

paria: a pair.

pariagium, pariatio: grant of portion of lands to lord or king in return for protection.

pariettare: to parget or plaister.

parificare: to equalise.

parius lapis: freestone.

parlamentalis: of parliament.

parlamentare: to confer together.

parlamentum: parliament.

parlatorium: a parlour; an audience chamber.

parliamentum, &c. See parlamentum, &c.

parlora: a parlour.

parmentarius: a tailor; a fripperer.

paro: a small ship.

parochia: a diocese; a parish.

parochianus: a parishioner; a parish priest.

parrio: a small ship.

parterra: a plot of ground.

partibilis: divisible.

partica: a perch.

particula: a parcel.

particulariter: by retail.

particus. See parcus.

partionarius: a partner.

parura: apparel; embroidery on an alb, amice, or altar frontal, &c.

parvisa: the cloisters or circuit of a convent; the cemetery; a church porch; a chamber over it. Perhaps a corruption of Paradisus.

parvisiae: an exercise for law students; a moot.

parvisium, parvisus. See parvisa.

pasaiarius: a ferryman.

Pasca. See Pascha.

pascarium: dues or tithes paid for pasture.

pascere: to feed, is used of men as well as beasts.

Pascha: Easter. In the 13th cent. acc. Pascha, gen. Paschatis or Pasche, abl. Pascha.

Pascha Floridum: Palm Sunday.

pascua: a meadow; pasture.

pascuagium: pasturage.

pascuarium: pasture; payment for pasture.

pasnagium: pannage.

passagiarius: a person crossing a ferry; a traveller.

passagium: passage over water, ferry; payment for passage; payment by military tenants in lieu of serving abroad.

passare: to pass; to cause to pass.

passarius: a ferryman.

passator: the owner of a ferry; a ferryman.

passiagiarius: a ferryman.

passiator. See passator.

passionerius: a passioner, i.e., book containing Saints' lives.

passus: a portion of a book or poem, "fytte"; a mountain pass.

pasta: dough; pastry.

pastea: pastry.

pastellarius: a pieman.

pastellum: woad.

pasteria: pastry.

pasticium: a field for pasture.

pastillus: a pie.

pastum: paste; dough.

pastura: pasture.

pasturare: to depasture.

pastus: provisions which a tenant is bound to supply to his lord.

patella: a pan; a tool used in building.

patena: a metal plate; a paten.

patenarius: an acolyte.

patens, patenta: letters patent.

pathnagium: pannage.

paticium: an allowance.

patriaster: a stepfather.

patricinium: used for patrocinium.

patrina: a godmother.

patrinus: a godfather.

patronicatus: commanded (of a ship).

patronizare: to defend.

paunagium: pannage.

pausa: a barrel.

pausatio: repose.

pavagium: pavage; payment for paving the roads.

pavare: to pave.

paveillo: a tent.

pavesium: a pavice, a large shield.

paviare: to pave.

paviator: a paviour.

pavilio: a tent.

pavimentatio: paving.

pavire: to pave.

pax: a small tablet presented by the priest at mass to be kissed by the people.

paxeria: a pier; a floodgate.

paxillum: a staff; a landmark; a tent pole.

peccum: a peck.

pecia: a piece or small quantity.

peciatum: a peck.

peconus: a hook or clasp.

pectorale: a breastplate; an ornament worn by a bishop; a horse's poitrel.

pectrix: a woman comber.

pecuarius: a grazier.

pedagium: pedage; toll paid by travellers, esp. through forests.

pedale: a footcloth; a duty exacted at Bordeaux; a shoemaker's last.

pedalis pons: a footbridge.

pedana: gaiters or stockings.

pedaticum: a toll on passengers; any toll.

pedatus: having a foot.

pedellum: a pightell or picle (?). See pictellum.

pedica: a fetter; a trap for catching wolves; a calthrop.

pedicator: a trapper.

pedicru: a pedigree.

pediles: stockings.

pedilusor: a football player.

pedinus: a pawn at chess.

pedisgradum: a pedigree.

pedis pulveris, or pulverisati, curia: Piepowder Court.

pedo: a foot soldier.

pedules: stockings.

pego: a candlestick.

peisa, peisea, peisia: a wey. See waga.

pela: a peel, a castle; a baker's peel.

peletarius: a pelterer.

peletria: peltry, skins.

pelfare: to pilfer.

pelfra: booty; pelf.

pella: a booth; a shop.

pellagium: duty on hides.

pellefridus: a palfrey.

pelletria: fur; the wardrobe of furs in the royal household; the trade of peltry.

pellica: a baker's peel.

pellicia, pellicies, pellicium: a pilch; a fur gown.

pelliparius: a pelterer, a skinner.

pelliris: a palet, a headpiece of cuir bouilli.

pellura: fur.

pellus: a shovel; a peel.

pelota, pellota: a ball; the ball of the foot.

pelum. See pela.

penalitas: penalty.

pendicia: appurtenances.

pendicula: a plumb-line.

pendiculum: a timber arch over a doorway.

pendulus: a pendant jewel.

penerarius: an ensign-bearer.

penitenciaria: penitentiaryship.

penitenciarius: a penancer.

penitimus: inmost.

penitior: inner.

pennarium: a penner.

pennula. See penula.

pennum: a pennon.

pensa: a wey. See waga.

pensionarius: liable to payment.

pensum: a weight.

pentecostalia: Whitsuntide offerings, or a payment in lieu of them.

Pentecoste: Whit Sunday.

penticium: a pentice or penthouse.

penucella: a pensell or penoncell, a small banner.

penula: a hood.

penularius: a maker of hoods; a parmenter.

penulatus: hooded; furred.

pera: a purse; a bag; a pier.

peracula: a little bag or purse.

perambulata, perambulatio: survey; a walk in a forest (?).

perambulum: a walk; an alley.

perapsis: a platter.

peraria. See petraria.

perca: a perch of land. See pertica.

percaminarius: a seller of parchment.

percaptura: stakes set in a river for catching fish.

percata: a perch. See pertica.

percella. See parcella.

perchia: a perch (perca fluviatilis); a perch or pole. See pertica.

percursum: pursuit; the right of following game beyond one's own bounds.

perdica: used for pertica.

perdona: pardon; discharge; remission.

perdonare: to pardon.

perdonatio: pardon.

perdonista: a pardoner, an official from whom pardons can be obtained.

perdricarius: a man employed in taking partridges.

perecia: a piece, a fragment.

peregrinatio: a pilgramage.

peregrinus: a pilgrim.

perempnis: used for perennis.

perendinare: to delay; to remain, to reside; to redouble.

perequare: to level.

performare: to perform.

pergamena: parchment.

pergamenarius: a parchment maker.

pergulum: a lodge; a pound.

perhendinare. See perendinare.

peribolus: a circuit; a compass; a gallery.

peridota: a peridot, a gem, colour green.

periermeniae: interpretation (Gk. peri hermeneias.)

perillum: part of the machinery of a mill.

perinus. See perrinus.

peritus: tried; sometimes used to mean "guilty."

perla: a pearl.

permentarius. See parmentarius.

peronizare: to purchase.

perpacare: to pay in full.

perperus: a Byzantine coin, worth half or a quarter of a mark.

perplacitare: to decide.

perplicar: a garter.

perpunctum: a doublet.

perquirere: to purchase, to acquire otherwise than by inheritance.

perquisitio: purchase.

perquisitor: a purchaser.

perquisitum: purchase; perquisite; profit.

perreator: a lapidary.

perreia: a precious stone.

perreria: a stone quarry.

perrinus: stony; shining like a precious stone.

perseus, persicus: peach-coloured.

persona: a person; a parson or rector.

persona impersonata: a parson imparsonee, a lawful incumbent in actual possession.

personabilis: able to maintain a plea.

personagium: a parsonage; a benefice.

personatus: the office of a parson; a benefice.

pertica: a perch or pole of land, 16 1/2 feet, in the thirteenth century 24 or 25 feet; a square perch, now 30 1/4 yards; a crossbeam; the beam of a buck's head or branch of a stag's.

perticalis: a percher candle, placed on a crossbeam.

perticarius: a beadle; an apparitor.

perticata: a square perch. See pertica.

perticia terre: the same as perticata.

perticulus: a staff; a bat.

pertinentia: appurtenance.

pertizona: distribution of alms (?).

pertum: a broom.

perula: a pearl.

pervisum. See parvisa.

pesa. See pensa.

pesagium: pesage, custom paid on weighing goods.

pesarius: a weigher.

pesor: a weigher, an Exchequer officer.

pessagium. See pesagium.

pessellum: a bolt (pessulum).

pesso, pessona: mast.

pessularia: a stockade.

pestellus: a leg of pork. O.E. pestle.

peta: peat.

petagium. See pedagium.

petalum: a paving stone.

petancia. See pietancia.

petilio, petilla: a crossbow bolt; a pestle.

petillarius: a boltmaker.

petillium: a crossbow bolt.

petitorium: a claim; a writ of right.

petra: a stone weight.

petraria: a stone quarry; an engine to cast stones.

petrima: a gun.

pettum: a crack of a whip; a report of a gun.

petulium: a bolt.

petulus: with white feet.

peytrellum: a poitrel.

phalesia: a cliff on the seashore.

phano: a banner.

pheliparius: a fripperer.

phila: a file.

philaterium, philaternum: a phylactery; an amulet; a reliquary, worn suspended from the neck.

philipparius: a fripperer.

phoracra. See foracra.

pica: an index, pyebook; rules for saying divine service; a peck.

picagium, piccagium: payment to the owner of the soil for breaking ground to erect booths, &c.

picesium: a pickaxe.

picheria: a pitcher.

picherius: a fish, perhaps pilchard (clupea pilchardus), but more probably the gilthead (chrysophrys or sparus aurata), called in Old French picarel, O.E. cackerell.

pichoisium, picoisum: a pickaxe.

pictaciare: to mend, to patch.

pictaciarius: a cobbler.

pictacio: painting.

pictare: to paint.

pictellum: a pightell, or picle, a small piece of land, enclosed with a hedge.

picturare: to paint.

picula: pickle.

pietancia: a pittance, an addition to the usual food in collegiate churches or convents; the pittance for two was given on one plate.

pietanciaria: the place where pittance is distributed; the office of the pittancer.

pietantiarius: a pittancer, an officer who distributes the pittance.

piga: the forearm.

pightellum. See pictellum.

pikerellus: a pickerel, a small pike.

pila: a pile (heraldic); the reverse of a coin.

pilare: to drive piles.

pilarius: a pillar.

pilatus: a blunt arrow, bolt, or quarel.

pileo: a hatter, a capper (?).

pilettus: an arrow with a knob at the head.

pillare: to plunder.

pillaria: plunder; devastation.

pilleus: for pileus, a hat.

pillorium, piloria, pilorium: a pillory.

pilum: cloth.

pilus: a stake.

pinaculum: a pinnacle.

pinca: a jug; a bodkin; a granary.

pincella: a pencil.

pincerna: a butler; a cupbearer.

pincernaria: a buttery; the office of butler.

pincernarius: an officer of the buttery.

pinnare: to notch; to cut niches.

pinsa: a pestle.

pinsella: a brake or braye, a kneading machine.

pinsis: a grimace.

pipa: the great or pipe roll of the Exchequer; a pipe of wine, two hogsheads.

piperarius: a pepperer.

pipum: a pipe of wine.

pira: an arch of a bridge.

piratum, piretum: perry.

piritegium: curfew.

pisa: a wey. See waga.

pisaria: a stock of peas.

piscaria: a fishery.

piscaricea navis: a fishing boat.

piscenarius: a fishmonger.

pischaria: a fishery.

piscina: a small lavatory in a church near the altar.

pistare, pistrinare: to bake.

pistrinum: a bakehouse; part of a church, error for piscina (?).

pitacio: a document; a letter.

pitancia, pitencia, &c. See pietantia, &c.

placea: a place; a plot of ground.

placeum. See placius.

placitabilis: impleadable.

placitare: to plead.

placitatio: pleading.

placitator: a pleader.

placitum: a plea; obligation to attend courts.

placium: a piece of flat ground.

placius: a plaice (platessa vulgaris).

plada: a plaice.

plagiare: to wound.

planare: to plank.

planatorium: a plane.

planca, plancha: a plank; a measure of land.

planchagium: planking; camp-sheathing.

planchera: a plank.

planchia: a plank.

planchiare: to plank.

planchicium. See planchagium.

plancium. See planchagium.

planctura: planking.

planeta: a chasuble.

plangnum: a plank.

planicies: a field (heraldic).

planula: staunchegreyne, a preparation like pounce, used by scriveners.

planus: plain, in the sense of unornamented.

plastrare, plastriare: to plaster.

plastrum: plaster.

plata: a flat piece of unwrought metal, ingot.

platellus: a platter.

platera: an open space (?).

platiper: a game played with stones.

platoma: a metal plate.

plaustrata: a wagon-load.

plaustrum: usually a wagon, but sometimes a two-wheeled cart.

plebania: a church having subordinate chapels; a parish.

plebanus: (adj.) parish.

plebanus: a rural dean; a parish priest.

plecta: a plait.

plectrum: pewter.

plegagium, plegiagium, plegiatio: suretyship; pledgery.

plegium, plegius: a pledge; surety.

plenarius miles: fully armed.

plevina: replevin; bail; surety.

plostrum. See plaustrum.

plumbarius: a plumber.

plumbatio: plumbing.

plumerus: a plover (charadrius pluvialis or vanellus cristatus).

pluscula, plustula: a buckle.

plutum: rain.

pluviale: a cope.

pluvina. See plevina.

pobles: used for poples.

pochia: a pouch; a purse.

poderis: an alb, a linen vestment worn under the chasuble; a rochet.

podium: anything to lean on; a staff; part of the seat in a choir stall.

podoris. See poderis.

poenacius: purple.

pokdetta, pokettum: a pocket.

pola: a perch or pole; a bank; a pool.

polana, polena: the pointed toe of a shoe; a pulley-piece, armour for the knee.

polentriticare: to sift flour.

poletarius: a poulterer.

poletria: poultry.

poletta: a pullet.

poliandrum: a grave, a gravestone.

polimitarius: a stainer.

politrudinare: to boult flour.

pollardus: a pollard, bad money, used in the 13th century.

pollex: an inch.

poltarium: poultry.

poltarius: a poulterer or keeper of fowls.

polteria: poultry.

polus: an axle.

pomacium: apple-moss, a dish made of stewed apples; cider.

pomellatus: dappled.

pomellum, pomelum: a pommel; a boss.

pompina: a kitchen.

pondagium: poundage.

ponderare: to weigh.

ponderatio: pesage.

ponderator: a pesour, weigher, an officer of the Exchequer.

pondus: a pound, a pinfold.

pontagium: tax for repairs of a bridge; toll taken on a bridge.

pontarius: a bridgemaker or bridge keeper.

pontifex: a bishop; a pope.

pontificalia: episcopal vestments.

pontificalibus, in: under stole.

pontificatus: bishopric; popedom.

pontonagium: bridge toll.

pontum: used for punctum.

popinator: a tippler, i.e., an alehouse keeper or a drinker.

porca terrae: a balk of land.

porcaria: a pigsty.

porcarius, porcator: a swineherd.

porcellatus: born (of pigs).

porchettus: a porker, a little pig.

porchia: a porch.

porkaria: a pigsty.

porpecia, porpesius: a porpoise (phocoena communis).

porportum: purport.

portabilis: portable.

portagium: toll taken at a gate; porterage; wear and tear.

portamentum: behaviour.

portaria: the office of porter.

portarius: a porter.

portatio: the entry of a bishop into his cathedral town; bearing arms.

portator: a porter.

portatus: carriage.

portella: a small gate; a basket; a reliquary.

portgrevius: a portreeve.

porticulus: a truncheon.

porticus: an apse or porch, not a peristyle as in classical Latin.

portiforium: a breviary.

portimotus. See portmota.

portionarius: a joint holder of a benefice.

portmota: a portmote, a court held in towns.

porus: a pore.

positio: an impost; a tax.

posse (subst.): power.

possessionatus: in possession of.

posta: a station; a post.

postarum, magister: Master of the Post.

postdisseisina: postdisseisin.

postela: a crupper.

postergare: to leave behind, to abandon.

posterna: a postern gate.

posterula, posticum: a postern gate.

postilla: a homily.

postillare: to interpret, to comment on.

postorellus: a name given to robbers in Gascony, temp. Edw. II.

postsellium: the hinder part of a saddle.

postulare: to transfer a man in possession of or elect of an episcopal see, to another.

potagium: pottage; a tax on drink.

potata: a pot or pottle.

potellum: a pottle, two quarts.

poteria: pottery; a pottery.

potestas: a king, chief ruler, or magistrate.

poticarius. For apothecarius.

potionare: to poison.

potissare: to sip.

pottarius: a potter.

pottata: a pot or pottle.

pottus: a pot.

potura: pasture; drink.

poudratus: powdered; salted.

poutura. See potura.

powenatius: a garment of cloth.

practisare, practizare: to practise.

praebenda: commons; a prebend; provender.

praebendarius: a prebendary.

praeceptor: an officer of the knights of the Temple.

praecantare: to sing beforehand.

praeceptoria: the benefice assigned to the office of praeceptor.

praecessor: vanguard.

praecipitaria: a battering ram.

praeconia: superiority; fame.

praeconisare: to foresee; to foretell; to proclaim.

praeconsa: some vestment.

praecontestis: a previous fellow-witness.

praefectus: a mayor.

praeferentia: preference; the right of receiving firstfruits.

praeferrementum: a prerogative; a privilege.

praelata: an abbess.

praelatia: ecclesiastical dignity.

praelatus: a magistrate; a bishop; an abbot or abbess; a prior or prioress.

praelibare: to mention before.

praemasticare: to discuss beforehand.

praemiabilis: deserving of reward.

praemunire: to cite (for praemonere).

praepositura: a reeveship, constableship; a district under the jurisdiction of such an officer.

praepositus: a provost; a constable or reeve; a warden (of a church); a bailiff; the prior of a Benedictine Abbey.

praerogativa: prerogative.

praesellum: a saddle bow.

praesentare: to present.

praesentia: a present, a gift.

praesentialiter: immediately; in presence of; as a gift.

praestare: to let.

praestitum: an advance of money.

praesul: a chief; a bishop; an abbot; a judge.

praesulatus: a bishopric; an abbacy.

prama: a prame, i.e., a barge or lighter.

pramo: a bargee.

precaria, precarium: a request by a lord to his tenant for aid or tax; extra service performed by tenants in ploughing and harvest, boonday, benewerk. See bedrepium.

precentaria: precentorship.

precentor: a precentor, a chanter.

precipitaria: a battering ram.

precis. See precaria.

preciunt: they cost.

preco: a crier.

precula: a rosary.

premorium: a primer.

prenticius: an apprentice.

prenum: a press for wine, &c.

prephatia: used for praefatio.

presbyter: a priest.

presbyteragium: the income of a parish priest.

presbyteratus: priesthood.

presbyterium: priesthood; a presbytery; the choir of a church.

presentum: a present, a gift.

primitiare: to begin.

princeps: a prince.

principalium: an heirloom; a mortuary.

principatus: principality.

principissa: a princess.

principium burgi: a town hall.

prior: a monastic officer, next to the abbot in an abbey, head of a priory.

prioratus: a priory.

priorissa: a prioress.

prisa: a prize; booty; a fine; prisage.

prisagium: prisage, a share of prizes; a right of taking prizes; a duty on wine and provisions.

prisalia: reprisals.

prisia: prisage.

prisa: a prisoner of war; a prison; imprisonment.

prisona: a prison.

prisonare: to keep in prison.

prisonarius: a prisoner.

privatus: privy.

privicarnium: fasting; Lent.

privilegiare: to grant a privilege to.

proaula: a porch.

probare: used for propriare.

probaticus: connected with sheep.

probator: an accuser; an approver.

probatum: a sheep.

probi homines: good men, an elected body of citizens forming a common council.

proceres: ornamental heads of beams on house fronts.

Processio: Rogation week.

processionale: a book containing directions for and music to be used in processions, the service for gangdays, litanies, or intercessions.

proclamator: a crier; in the Court of Common Pleas, proclamator.

proconsul: a justice in eyre.

procuratio: procuration, a payment, originally in victuals, by the inferior clergy to bishop or archdeacon at visitations; a proxy; necessaries, as food and clothing; a meal.

procurator: a proctor.

procuratorium: procuratory; a proxy.

proditio: treason.

proditionaliter: treasonably.

profectus: profit.

profestum: the eve of a feast.

proficuum: profit.

profrum: profer, time appointed for officers to make their accounts.

promarius: a waiter.

promtorium, promptuarium: a buttery; a storehouse.

propalare: to publish.

propars, propartia: pourparty, purparty.

prophetare: to prophecy.

propiare. See propriare.

propina: salutation.

proportare: to purport; to show.

proportatio: a verdict; a declaration.

proportionabiliter: proportionally.

proportionare: to divide.

proportionatio: proportion.

proportum: purport.

proprestura: the 12th century form of purprestura.

propriare: to claim; to appropriate; to make fit for use; to grind (of tools).

propriatio: appropriation.

propriator: an impropriator.

proprietarius: a proprietor.

propunctum: a doublet.

proretha: a master of a ship.

prosecutor: a prosecutor; a pursuivant.

prostrare: to throw down.

protocollum: a preface; a charter.

protoforestarius: a chief forester.

protonotarius, protonotator: a prothonotary.

protractura: drawing a picture before colouring.

providentia: provision.

provisio: a grant by the Pope of the succession to a benefice.

provisor: a purveyor.

psalterium: a psalter.

puca: a gown. O.E. pewke.

pucellagium: maidenhood.

pucha: a pouch.

puchea: a pouch.

pucio: a child.

puctura. See putura.

puellagium. See pullagium.

pugnalis: the size of a fist.

pugnata: a handful.

pulcinus: a chicken.

puletarium: a poultry yard.

puletarius: a poulterer.

pullagium: a tax or rent paid in fowls.

pullanus: a foal.

pullarius: an officer of the royal household in charge of the poultry.

pullenata: a mare which has foaled.

pulletarius: a poulterer.

pulletria: poultry.

pulletrus: a foal.

pulliolus, pullus: a young horse.

pulo: a foal.

pulsare: to accuse; to ring a bell.

pulsatio: bell ringing.

pultrella: a filly.

pultura: poultry.

pulveris, pulverisati pedis, curia: Court of Piepowder.

pulvis tormentarius: gunpowder.

pulverizare: to powder.

pumata: a handful.

punctum: the fourth or fifth part of an hour.

pundfalda: a pound, a pinfold.

pundo: a pinder.

punfauda. See pundfalda.

puniata: a handful.

punicare: to paint red.

punio. See punzunus.

puntum: a point; the chape of a scabbard.

punzunus: a punshion, stud or quarter, an upright timber used in building houses.

puralla: purlieu.

purare: to clear (ground).

purcachium, purchacia: purchase, acquisition.

purcivandus: a poursuivant.

purgacium: purchase.

purila: the tip of the nose.

purportare: to extend.

purportum: purport.

purprestura: pourpresture, encroachment.

purprisa, purprisum: an enclosure.

purpunctus: a doublet (Fr. pourpoint.)

putacius: a polecat.

putagium: fornication.

putura: food for cattle, &c.; food for men, horses, and hounds, exacted by officers of a forest from the inhabitants; timber.

pyrgus: a dice-box.

pyritegium: curfew.

pyxis: a pyx, a casket to contain the Host.



quaehetus: a sort of bread used in Scotland.

quactum: cream.

quadra: a square loaf; a quarter of a loaf.

quadragena: forty; a period of forty days.

quadragesima: Lent.

quadragesimalia: Easter offerings; or a rate paid in their stead.

quadrans: a farthing.

quadrantata: the quarter of an acre, a farthingdeal.

quadraria: a quarel or quarry of glass; a stone quarry.

quadrellus: a quarel, a square-headed bolt; a carrell, a small chamber for study in the cloister of a monastery.

quadrigarius: wide enough for a waggon.

quadriporticus: a peristyle.

quaesta: an indulgence; a tax.

quaestabilis: taxable.

quaestionarius: a collector of alms; a seller of indulgences.

quaestus: acquired by purchase.

qualificare: to entitle; to describe.

qualus: a thread, a strainer used in brewing.

quarellus. See quadrellus.

quarentena: quarentine, a space of forty days; Lent; a shot or shute, i.e., a square furlong, a space of 40 perches.

quarrera: a stone quarry.

quarrerius: a stonecutter.

quarruria: a stone quarry.

quarta: a quart.

quartale: a quart.

quartarium: a quarter of corn.

quartarius terrae: eight acres.

quartenarius: suffering from quartan ague.

quarteragium: quarterage, quarterly payment.

quarteria: a quarter of land.

quarterisare: to cut into four quarters.

quarterium: a quarter; a soam of corn.

quarterizatio: quartering, part of the punishment of treason.

quaternum: a quire.

quarteronus: a quarter; a quarter of a hundredweight.

quartilatus: divided into four parts.

quartus: a quart.

quassare: to annul, to quash.

quassillarius: a pedlar.

quaternio, quaternum: a folded sheet of paper (Fr. cahier); a quire.

quaternis, in: in quarto.

quaterno, in: in quarto.

quatriplicare: to quadruple.

quaxillarius: a pedlar.

quentesia: a device.

querela: a party; a faction; a fine.

querquera: ague.

querraria: a quarry.

querulare: to complain.

questa: an inquest or inquisition.

questionarius: a palmer. O.E. "quistron."

quieta clamancia or clamatio: a quitclaim.

quietantia: an acquittance; abandonment; immunity.

quietare: to quit; to acquit.

quietatio: exemption, discharge, acquittance.

quiete, quietum clamare: to quit claim, to renounce.

quietus: freed, acquitted, quit.

quietus redditus: quit rent.

quindecia. See quindena.

quindena: a quinzaine, fifteen days.

quinio: a bundle of five; a sheet made of five leaves.

quintale, quintallus: a weight used for metals, &c., varying from 96 lbs. to 120 lbs.

quintana: Quintaine, the first Sunday in Lent.

quintena: the game called quintain.

quinterna: a cittern.

quirea: the hounds' reward at the death of a stag (Fr. curée); a cuirass; something connected with a cart.

quirinarium: a quintain.

quisinum: a cushion.

quitancia: an acquittance; a quittance; a discharge.

quittacio. See quitancia.

quittare: to acquit; to remit.

quorespondens: used for correspondens.

quota: a share; a tax to be levied equally.

quota litis: a bribe received by a judge.

quotare: to divide into chapters; to repeat; to mark.

quotator: a chronicler.

quyschenus: a cushion.



racetus: erased.

racha. See ragana.

rachaptare: to ransom.

rachatum: compensation; ransom; relief.

rachetare: to ransom.

rachetum. See rachatum.

radiatus: rayed, striped; ray, a striped cloth.

ragana: a ray (raia clavata) or a skate (raia batis).

raglorium: the jurisdiction of a raglotus.

raglorius, raglotus: a steward. (Welsh, rhaglaw.)

ralla: a rail; a thin tunic.

ramia, ramilla, ramilia: twigs.

rangeator: a ranger.

rapa: a rape, a division of a county, especially Sussex.

rapagulum: railing.

rappus. See rapa.

rapum: rape (crime).

rapus. See rapa.

rasa: a rase, a measure of corn; land requring a rase of seed.

rasare: to scrape, to rase.

raseria. See rasa.

rasorium: a razor.

rastillare: to rake.

rastillum: a rake.

rastrare: to rake.

rastura: shaving.

rasurus: a razor.

rata: an agreement; a share; a rate.

ratificare: to ratify, to confirm.

ratificatio: ratification.

ratihabere: to confirm.

rationale: a peculiar form of the pontifical pallium.

ratis: error for crates (?).

rato: a rat.

ratula: a landrail (crex pratensis).

ratus: a rat.

rauba: a robe.

raubare: to rob.

raubaria: robbery.

raucisonare: to speak hoarsely.

rayus: a ray or skate (raia clavata or batis).

reafforestare: to make land into a forest after it has been disafforested.

realis: royal.

reattachiamentum: a reattachment of one who has been dismissed by the court.

rebroccator: a cobbler.

recaptio: taking a second distress.

recatiare: to restore.

recatum: relief.

reccare: to rack wine, to draw it off the lees.

reccus: wine thus treated. (Fr. vin raqué.)

recepta: receipt; receiving in the sense of harbouring.

receptamentum: receiving; entertainment.

receptare, recettare: to harbour; to entertain.

rechaciare: to drive out; to separate gold or silver from the ore.

rechatum. See rachatum.

recidiva: retribution.

recidivare: to fall back.

recitare: to revoke.

reckus. See reccus.

reclusa: an inclosure; an anchoress.

reclusagium: a cell.

reclusorium: a cell; a pound or pinfold.

reclusus: an anchorite.

reclutare: to reglue (reglutinare).

recognitio: acknowledgment; recognizance; recognition.

recognitor: one who enters into a recognizance; a juror impanelled on an assize; a recognisor, recognitor.

recognoscere: to acknowledge; to take cognizance of.

recokillatus: curled. (Fr. recoquillé.)

recollecta: gathering; harvest.

recommenda: recommendation.

recompensare: to repay, to recompense.

recordator: a recorder.

recordum: a record; a memorial.

recreantisa: recreancy.

recredencia: recreance, a provisional possession given to one of the parties till a suit be determined.

recta: right; jurisdiction.

rectare: to set straight; to cite, to accuse.

rectitudo: right in the sense of compensation.

rector: the rector of a parish, or college.

rectoria: a rectory; a rector's house.

recuperamen: a recovery.

recuperare: (subst.) recovery.

recuperatio: a recovery.

recussorium: a hammer.

recusum: rescue.

reddare: to clean, to scour (a river).

redditarium: a rental.

redditarius: a renter.

redditualis: rent (adj.).

redditus: rent.

redditus assisae or assisus: rent of assise.

redemptio: ransom.

redimere: to ransom, to purchase the freedom of; sometimes, to set free for a ransom.

redisseisina: redisseisin.

reditus, &c. See redditus.

refare: to rob, to deprive.

refectorarius: a caterer; a refectorer, refectioner.

refectorium: a refectory, fratry or frater; a dining-hall.

refeoffare: to enfeoff again.

referendarius: an officer who exhibits petitions to the king, Master of the Requests.

refletum: an osier bed.

refollum: the outlet of a pond; an overflow.

refortiuncula: a fortress.

refullum. See refollum.

refutancia. See refutatio.

refutatio: a quittance, a receipt.

rega terrae: a measure of land in Guienne. (Fr. rége.)

regale, regalia: royalty; the temporal rights of a bishop; some kingly ornament, that used by Henry III was of white "diaspre" or silk.

regalitas: royalty.

regardare: to examine, to inspect; to regard.

regardator: the regarder of a forest.

regardere. See regardare.

regardor. See regardator.

regardum: the regard, or inspection of a forest; the extent of the regarder's charge; the impost levied by him; a reward.

regardus. See regardator.

rege et regina, ludus de: chess.

regestum: a register; a bookmarker; a safe for jewels, &c.

registrarius: a registrar.

registrum: a register; a bookmarker.

regrataria: sale by retail.

regratarius: one who buys to resell in the same market, a regrator.

regratiare: to give thanks.

regrator. See regretarius.

reguardum, &c. See regardum.

regula: a reglet, a narrow flat moulding.

regulare: to rule; to rule lines.

regulare: an instrument used in the mint.

regularis: belonging to a monastic order.

regulus: a prince; an earl.

regwardum. See regardum.

rehabilitatio: restoration to former ability.

reia: a swathe, a row.

reintrare: to re-enter.

reintratio: re-entry.

reisa: a journey; a campaign.

rejunctio: a rejoinder.

relaxare: to release.

relaxatio: a release; relief.

relevamen, relevatio, relevium: relief, a payment to the lord by a feudal tenant on entering his fief.

religio: a religious order.

religiosus: a member of such an order.

rella: ray, striped cloth.

remanentia: remainder.

remasilia vaccarum: cowdung.

remedium: recreation.

remembrancia: remembrance.

rememoratio: a remembrance.

rememorator: a remembrancer.

remissus: careless.

remocium: rowing.

remuabilis: removeable.

remulus: a rudder, an implement in mixing malt.

renga: a belt; a baldric.

rengia, rengiata: a strip of land.

rengum: a rank; a row.

reno: a short cloak, usually fur.

rentale: a rental ; a rent-roll.

rentarius: a renter, a tenant paying rent.

reparium: a fortified place; a harbour (for deer); repair, i.e. recourse, visit.

repassagium: return.

repassare: to return.

repastum: a repast, a meal.

repatriare: to return to one's country.

repausare: to nourish; to be still, to repose; to make still.

repeciare: to patch.

repellare: to repeal.

repellum: repeal.

reperium. See reparium.

replacitare: to plead what was pleaded before.

replegiabilis: replevisable, bailable.

replegiamentum: replevin.

replegiare: to redeem by giving surety; to replevy.

reportagium: carrying back.

reportare: to report.

reportus: report.

reprisa: deduction.

reprisale: taking one thing in satisfaction for another, reprisal.

reprisare: to remit; to deduct.

reragia. See arreragium.

resaisire. See reseisire.

rescuere: to rescue.

rescussa, rescussio: recovery; rescue; attack.

rescussor: a rescuer.

rescussura: rescue.

rescussus: rescue.

rescutire: to rescue.

reseantia: residence.

reseisire: to retake lands into the king's hand; to replace in seisin.

resiantia, resiantisa: residence.

residensurus: about to reside.

resolvere: to pay.

resortire: to be in the jurisdiction of; to revert; to resort to.

resortum: the jurisdiction of a court; return.

respecta: respite.

respectare, respectuare: to respite.

respectus: respite.

respiciatus: considered; decreed.

respiciens: reguardant (heraldic).

respicium: respite.

responsalis: one who answers for another in court.

restare: to arrest. For arestare.

restauramentum: restocking.

restaurare: to repair; to restore; to restock.

restaurus: reparation; store.

resummonire: to summon again.

resummonitio: resummons.

retabulum. See retrotabula.

retallia, retallium: retail.

retare. See rectare.

retenementum: withholding.

retentio, retinentia: retinue.

retiaculum: a small net.

retinementum: withholding.

retirare: to retire.

retondarius: a clipper of coin.

retonsura: clipping.

retorna: return of writs, &c.

retornare: to return.

retornus: profit; return.

retracta: withdrawal.

retrocomitatus: rier-county, a place appointed by the sheriff for receipt of the king's money, after the close of the county court.

retrofeudum: a mesne fee or mesne tenure.

retrogarda: a rearguard.

retropannagium: pannage from Martinmas to Christmas.

retrotabula, retrotabulum: a retable, a shelf above an altar or a frame on such a shelf.

retrovenda: a sum paid on purchasing an estate in addition to the price.

retta. See recta.

rettum: a charge, an accusation.

returna, &c. See retorna, &c.

reugia: a measure of land (error for rengia (?)).

revella, revelles: revels.

revelus: a pedlar.

reventio: revenue.

reversatus: turned inside out.

reversio: reversion, the right of succession.

revestiarium: vestry; sacristy.

revestire: to reinfeoff.

revestitorium: a vestry.

revestitura: putting into possession again.

revolus: a pedlar.

rewardum. See regardum.

rewennio: rennet.

reysa: a journey; a campaign.

ribaldus: a light-armed soldier; a rogue, a vagrant.

ribinare: to bank up (?).

ridare: to clean.

ridellus: a curtain.

ridmicus (rhythmicus): in metre; in rhyme.

rifflare: to take away by force; to plunder.

riffletum: an osier bed.

rifflura: plunder. See also rufflura.

riga: a ridge.

rima: rhyme.

rimagium: error for riviagium (?).

ringa: a soldier's belt.

ringeldus, ringildus: a bailiff. (Welsh rhingyll.)

ringildria: office of ringildus.

rinsura: washing.

riota: a riot.

riotosus: riotous.

riottum: a riot.

riparia: water flowing between banks.

riparius: one who conveys fish from the coast to inland towns.

ripator: a reaper.

risa: rice.

rismus: rhyme.

ritare. See rectare.

rivagium: toll taken on rivers for the passage of boats, or on the shore for landing goods.

rivaria: a river bank.

riveare, riviare: to fish and fowl on a river; to have the right of doing so.

riviagium: the above-mentioned right. See also rivagium.

rivera: a river.

rivola: a stream, a rivulet.

rixa: rice.

roba: a robe.

robare: to rob.

robaria: robbery.

robator, roberator: a robber.

roberia: robbery.

robigalia: Rogation week.

roborare: to confirm.

robur: often means a dead oak for firewood, while quercus is used for a live one, to be cut down for timber.

rocca: a spinning rock, or distaff.

rochea: a roach.

rochettum: a rochet, a frock of white lawn without or with tight sleeves.

rochia, rochus: a roach (leuciscus rutilus).

rocus: a rook or castle at chess.

roda: a perch, 16 1/2 feet; a rood, a quarter of an acre.

rogationes: public prayers or processions.

rogatorium: an almonry.

rogatorius: a beggar; an almoner.

rogus: a pile of wood; a beacon; a rogue.

rolla: a roll.

rollagium: rolling; money paid therefor.

rollare: to enrol; to roll.

rolliare: to roll.

romancium: a French book; a romance.

Romano, in: in French.

romea: a room.

romipeta: one who has appealed to Rome.

roncalis, roncaria. See runcalis.

rondella: a roundel.

ropa: a rape, a division of a county.

rosa, rosarius: base money imported from abroad in the reign of Edw. I. A penny of base money in Q. Mary's reign bears a rose instead of the Queen's head; a rosette.

rosatum vinum: vin rosetique from Nerac in Gascony.

rosera auca: a species of wild goose.

roserellum: a rosary (?), a rosette (?).

rosetum: a rushy place; thatch.

rossinum: rosin.

rossus: red.

rotabulum: a firefork.

rotagium: wheelage, toll on wheeled vehicles.

rotarius: a soldier; a robber; a wheelwright.

rotula: a roll; a rowel; a mullet (heraldic); a candle.

rotulare: to turn round; to enrol.

rotularius: a notary; a secretary.

rotulus: a roll.

routa, routum: a rout; an unlawful assembly.

rubbosa: rubbish.

rubea, rubettus, rubetus: a ruby.

rubiginator: a furbisher.

rubius: red.

rubrica: a rubric.

rubricella: a little rubric.

rucha. See rutta.

rucillaria: a skep (?); same as ruscatia (?).

rudera: rubbish.

ruellum: a taper.

rufflura: a scratch.

ruinus: ruinous.

rumagium: rummaging, unloading a ship.

rumigerulus: bearer of tidings.

rumphea: a dart.

runagium: error for riviagium (?).

runcalis, runcaria: land overgrown with brambles, &c.

runcilus, runcinus: a draught-horse, or pack-horse.

runsus. See runcilus.

ruptarius: a husbandman; a mercenary soldier; a robber.

ruptura: arable land.

rusca: a skep; a hive.

ruscatia: a place where broom grows.

ruscubardum: some kind of broom.

ruscum: filth; gorse.

russetus: russet.

russus: red.

rusticus: used as the opposite to liber in the 12th century.

ruta. See routa, rutta.

rutta: a troop of mercenary soldiers.


small beer.

sabbatarius: a Jew.

sabbatis dies: Saturday.

sabbatum: sometimes means peace.

sabelinus: (adj.) of sable fur.

sabellum, sabelum: a sable (mustela zibellina).

saber: (adj.) rough; (subst.) gravel.

sablinus. See sabelinus.

sablona: sand.

sablonare: to strew with sand.

sabracia: sabras, a mixture used in dressing parchment.

sabulonarium: a gravel pit; liberty to dig gravel, and money paid for the same.

saca: sac, a lord's right of holding a court for pleas of trespass among his tenants.

saccare: to pack.

saccha. See saca.

saccinus: wearing sackcloth; a monk.

sacculus: a satchel; a hood.

saccus: a sack; a cloak.

sacellarius: a keeper of a purse.

sacer: a female saker falcon (falco sacer), the male being called a sakerett; a cannon, of various sizes.

sacramentalis: a compurgator.

sacrarium: a small lavatory near the altar in a church.

sacrifugus: some trade.

sacrista: a sacristan; a sexton.

sacristaria, sacristia: a sacristy or sextry.

saecularis: not belonging to a monastic order.

saenna: a seine net; a fishery.

saga: say, fine serge.

sagemannus. See sagibaro.

sagena. See saenna.

sagibaro: an elder, a judge.

sagimen: fat, lard.

saginarius. See sagmarius.

sagitta: an arrow; the shaft of a cart; a small swift ship.

sagittamen: a stock of arrows.

sagittaria: a small swift ship.

sagittarius: a bowman; a fletcher; a shafter, i.e., the horse next the cart in a team.

sagma: a soam. See summa.

sagmarius: a packhorse.

sagmen: fat, lard.

sagum: say, fine serge.

saio: a tipstaff.

saisio: season.

saisire, &c. See seisire.

saisona: season.

sala: a hall.

salare: to salt.

salaria. See salarium.

salariare: to ebb.

salarium: a saltcellar; pay, salary.

salcia: a sausage.

salina: a salt pit; a tax on salt.

salinare: to salt.

salinarius: a salter.

salire: to salt.

salitus: salted.

salix: active.

salma: a seam of corn, 8 bushels.

salsa: a salt marsh; seasalt; sauce.

salsaria, salseria: a salt pit; the saucery, an office in the royal household.

salsarium: a saltcellar; a saucer; a measure of dry goods.

salsarius: the officer in charge of the saucery, "le sauser."

salsatio, salsatum: salting.

salsea: sauce.

salsinia, salsutia: a sausage.

saltatorium: a deer leap, a leapyeat; a stirrup; a saltire.

salteria: a salt house; a saltery.

salterium: used for psalterium.

saltorium, salturum. See saltatorium.

salutia, salutium: a salute, a French gold coin of the 15th century, with the Annunciation or Salutation on the obverse, weight 60 grains Troy, coined also by Henry V and Henry VI.

salvagardia: safeguard, safe keeping.

salvagina: deer; venison.

salvagium: salvage.

salvagius: wild, savage.

salvistrum: saltpetre.

salvus conductus: a safe conduct.

samba: a cittern.

samictum, samitum: samite, rich silk cloth, often woven with silver or gold.

samo: a salmon (salmo salar).

sanctimonialis: a nun.

sanctuarium: a sanctuary; consecrated ground.

sandax: madder (sandix).

sandalium: cendal or sendal.

sanguinarius: a bloodhound.

sanna: derision.

saponarius: a soap maker.

sappus: sap; moisture.

sarabaitae: men calling themselves monks, who belong to no rule.

sarabarda: a pilgrim's cloak, O.E., slaveyne; coarse cloth.

sarclare: to weed, to hoe.

sarclo: a hoe.

sarculare. See sarclare.

sarculatura: a day's work at weeding.

sargens. See serviens.

sargia: serge; a mat.

sargire: to sift.

sarkellus: an engine for catching fish.

sarpeleria: packing wool.

sarpilarium: coarse cloth; a cloak of such material.

sarplare: a sarpler of wool, half a sack; in France, larger than a sack.

sarplerium. See sarpilarium; sarplare.

sarracum: a tumbrel, a dung cart.

sarrator: a sawyer.

sartare: to clear ground of wood, &c. See assartare.

sartatectum: thatch.

sartor: a tailor.

sartorium: a tailor's shop; a room in a monastery where the clothes were made.

sartrinum. See sartorium.

sartum: woodland brought into cultivation. See assartum.

satiare: to impound.

saticulum: a seedlip.

satifiare: to ratify.

satitolum: a seedlip.

satorium: a seedlip, or basket used in sowing.

satrinum: a bakehouse.

saugma, sauma: a soam. See summa.

saurus: a hawk until her first moult.

sausaria: a saucer.

sovagina. See salvagina.

savina: a measure. In some cases perhaps an error for saugma.

saxifragium: a stone quarry.

saysire. &c. See seisire. &c.

sayum: serge; silk (?).

scabinus: the wardens of the town of Lynne were so called. (Fr. échevin.)

scaccarium: a chessboard; the Exchequer.

scacci: chessmen.

scaccificare: to play chess.

scachia: the body of a tally.

scafila: a boat.

scala: a goblet; a scale for weighing.

scalarium: a staircase.

scaldria: a scalding house.

scalera, scaleria, scalerna: a stile (?).

scalinga: a slate quarry.

scambium, scambum. See escambia.

scamella: a butcher's block or stall.

scamellum: a bench or stool (scabellum).

scamnarium: a banker, a carpet or cloth to cover a bench.

scandalum: prejudicial report; scandal.

scangium. See escambia.

scansile: a stirrup.

scansillum: a stile.

scantilio: a piece; a sample.

scapha: a measure of corn.

scaphalda: a scaffold.

scapilus: a measure of corn.

scapulare: a scapular, a garment worn by Benedictines when at work, instead of the cowl; a vestment made of two woolen bands, one down the breast, the other down the back.

scapulare: to beat.

scara: underwood; a troop.

scareta: a vine prop.

scaria: a troop of soldiers.

scarioballum: the cog of a mill.

scarlateus, scarlatus, scarletus: scarlet.

scarta: a measure of corn, in use in Bordeaux, equal to an English quarter.

scatarigo: a spring of water.

scatera: a creek.

scavagium: scavage or schewage, toll exacted from merchants for goods exposed for sale, or paid when imported goods are shown at the Custom-house.

scavaldus: a collector of scavage.

scawanga. See scavagium.

sceithmannus: a pirate.

scelda. See selda.

scenerium: a courtyard (?).

sceppa: a skep. See esceppa.

sceurum: a granary; a repository.

schaffa: a sheaf.

schavaldus. See scavaldus.

schaveldarius: a moss trooper.

schela: a bell; a strap.

schilla: a small bell; a dish.

schillingus: a shilling.

schira: a shire; a shire court; payment for exemption from attending thereat.

schirmannus: the ruler of a shire; a sheriff.

schopa: a shop.

scilicet: to wit.

scindallum: cendal.

scindifaber: a bladesmith.

scinditorium: trencher bread.

scindula: shingle for roofing; lath; a blade.

scindularius: a bladesmith.

sciper, sciprus: a skipper, a captain of a ship.

scira. See schira.

scisellum: a chisel.

scisimus: a fur, gris.

scissor: a tailor.

scissorium: a trencher.

scitus: site. For situs.

sclauma: a cloak.

sclavus: a slave.

sclopeta: a gun.

scolpetarius: a musketeer.

sclopetum: a gun; an arquebus.

sclusa: a dam; a sluice.

scochia: a scutcheon.

scolastizare: to study.

sconcha, sconsa: a sconce.

scopellus: a knife; a chisel; a lancet; used for scapilus.

scopeta: a gun.

scoppa: a shop.

scorcium: bark.

scoria: dross; a score.

scorium: a mat.

scortum: escort.

scota: scot; tax.

scotalla, scotallum: a contribution for liquor for forest officers; a feast provided by contribution.

scoticare: to naturalise a man in Scotland.

scotta. See scota.

scottare: to pay scot.

scotum. See scota.

scribania: an office in Guienne, registry.

scrinea, scrineum: a screen.

scrinialis, scriniarius: a scrivener.

scrinium: a shrine.

scriptorium: a writing room.

scrivabile paperum: writing paper.

scrobula: a robe worn by female pilgrims.

scrofa: a sow; a machine for digging at the base of the walls of a fortress.

scrotula: a scroll.

scrutator: an examiner; a watchman.

scrutinium: search; examination.

scrutlanda: land assigned for providing clothes.

scucheo: an escutcheon.

scultetus: a governor, "schout."

scura: a stable.

scurare: to scour.

scurellus: a squirrel.

scurgia: a whip (?).

scuria: a stable.

scurio: a stableman.

scutagium: a tax paid in lieu of military service by those who held lands by knight-service.

scutarius: an esquire; a shield maker.

scutella: a dish; a scuttle; a basket; a coin (?).

scutellarium: a scullery.

scutellarius: a scullion; a monk or other person in charge of crockery and other table things; a dealer in such ware.

scutifer, scutiger: an esquire.

scutillarius. See scutellarius.

scutra: a metal chafing dish.

scutularius. See scutellarius.

scutulatus: dapple grey.

scutum: a shield; the coin called a crown; a coat-of-arms.

scyra. See schira.

scyremotum: a shiremote, a meeting of the qualified men of a shire.

scytheaticum molendinum: "a blade mylle."

seasina: seisin.

seca: a saw; perhaps also hair cut from the tails of oxen.

secerniculum: a portcullis.

seckillo: thorns, brambles (?).

secretarium: a strong room in a convent for keeping relics, plate, &c.; a sacristy.

secretarius: a secretary; a sacristan, a sexton.

secta: suit, in all senses.

sectare: to sue.

sectarius: a suitor.

sectator: an executioner; a suitor.

secundarius: a secondary, second clerk of the sheriff.

secuntur: sometimes used for sequuntur.

securantia: assurance.

securare: to warrant; to make secure.

securatio: surety; security.

securiare. See securare.

sedes: used for caedes.

sedua: used for caedua.

sedula: a schedule.

seforniculum: a portcullis.

segutius canis: a sleuth hound.

seignior: senior; a lord.

seignoragium: lordship.

seillo: a strip of land; a furrow. See selio.

seisare. See seisinare.

seisina: seisin, possession.

seisinare: to put in possession.

seisire: to take possession; to put in possession.

seisona: season.

selda: a shop; a stall; a shed; a willow wood; a salt pit.

selio: a butt of land, an uncertain quantity; a strip in the open field.

sellarius: a saddler.

semella: a shoesole.

semiquarta: a pint.

semispata, semispathum: a small sword.

semitorium: often used for coemeterium.

semitorius: a seedlip (basket).

semotim: separately.

sempectae: senior monks, of fifty years' standing, in the Benedictine order.

semus: imperfect; mutilated.

senagium: money paid for synodals.

sendellium. See cendalum.

senescalcia, senescaldia: stewardship.

senecaldus: a steward.

senescallia: stewardship.

senecallus: a steward.

senescaria: stewardship.

seneucia: widowhood.

senevectorium: a wheelbarrow, a mud cart (cenivectorium).

senglarius: a wild boar.

sententiare: to sentence, to condemn.

sentinarum domus: "houses of office."

seolda: a shop, a stall.

seosinabilis: seasonable.

sepa. See cepa.

separalis, seperarius, separius: several.

seperalitas: severalty.

sephalanaxia: chief requirements; commands.

seplassarius: a merchant; a grocer.

septimana: a week.

septimanarius: taking weekly turns of duty (hebdomadarius).

septipliciter: sevenfold.

septor: a hedger.

sepultura: burial fee.

sepum: tallow.

sequela: result; suit; retinue; issue of a nativus, or bondman.

sequentia: a sequence, a hymn sung after the gradual and before the gospel.

sequestrare: to sequester; to renounce.

sequestrum: sequestration.

seratura: a bolt or lock; a locksmith's trade.

serchia: search; hue and cry.

sergancius: a serjeant.

serganteria: serjeanty; tenure by honourable service.

serganterium: "unum serganterium, s. tres solidos per annum." (Fine, Suffolk, Ric. I., No. 11.)

sergenteria. See serjanteria.

seriere: to settle.

serifaber: a locksmith.

seriolius: in order.

serjanteria: the fee or benefice of a serviens; the office of apparitor.

serjantia, serjeantia: serjeanty.

serjantius: a serjeant.

sermonium: an interlude or pageant.

serpigo: crawling.

serplera: a sarpler of wool, half a sack.

serrare: to lock.

serrura: a bolt, a lock.

serum: evening.

servagium: the obligation of providing workmen for the lord.

servatorium: a stew; a chest.

servicia: ale (cervisia).

serviens: a servant; an infantry soldier; a sergeant.

serviens ad legem: a serjeant at law.

servisia: ale (cervisia).

servitium: service, the duty owed by the tenant to his lord.

servorium. See servatorium.

servus: a bondman; a servile tenant.

sesona, sesso: season, esp. for sowing.

seuda. See selda.

seueare: to drain.

seuera. See sewera.

severundae: eaves.

seweare: to drain.

sewera: a trench to preserve land from floods; a sewer.

sexhindeni: men whose wergyld was 600s.

sexogonus: with six corners or angles.

sextertium: used for sextarius.

seylo. See selio.

seysire. See seisire.

shaffa: a sheaf of arows, fourteen or twenty-four.

shava alei: a chive of garlic.

shelfa: a bank where mussels are found.

shippare: to ship.

shira: a shire. See schira.

shopa: a shop.

shotea: a workman of some kind.

shouta: a schuyt or scout, a Dutch fishing boat.

sibula: an awl (subula).

sica: a sike, a ditch, a furrow; a marsh.

sica: a gisarme, according to Matthew Paris, I. 470.

sicera: beer or cider.

sichetum: a little stream of water; a piece of meadow.

siclus: a coin worth a shilling; a shekel.

sigalis, sigalum: rye.

sigillare: to seal.

sigillarius: the keeper of a seal; a chancellor.

sigillator pannarius: an alnager of cloth.

sigillum: a seal.

sigla: a sail.

siglare: to sail.

siglatura: a day's sail.

signare: often used for significare; to make the sign of the cross.

signetum: a signet.

signifacere: to signify.

signum: the sign of the cross; a bell.

sika: a sike (Yorks.).

sikettus. See sichetum.

sila: a sill; a ditch.

silarium: the ceiler of a bed; a canopy.

silentiarius: a privy councillor; an usher; a papal secretary.

silina: a measure of corn.

silvicedium: coppice wood, under 30 years' growth.

similari: to assemble.

simina: a chamber.

siminellus: simnell bread, fine white bread; a cake.

simonia: simony, traffic in spiritual things.

sincatio: digging (a well).

sincellus: sharing the same cell; a coadjutor.

sincubare: to cut short (syncopare).

sindicus: an advocate.

sindula. See scindula.

singillatim: one by one.

singnifacere. See signifacere.

singnificare. Used for significare.

singnum: used for signum.

sinistrare: to turn to the left; to walk on the left of.

sinimum: cinnamon.

sinodogium: an inn (xenodochium).

sira. See schira.

sirgia: an instrument of torture.

sirographum. See chirographum.

sirotheca. See chirotheca.

sirurgicus: a surgeon (chirurgicus).

sisara. See sicera.

sistarchia: a bag or basket.

sitarius, sitator: a summoner.

situare: to be situate.

situs: site.

skamberlengeria: chamberlainship.

skarkalla: an engine for catching fish.

skella, skelletta: a small bell.

skerda: a scar.

skermia: swordplay, fencing.

skilla: a small bell (schilla).

skippagium: embarkation; passage money on board ship; hire of a ship.

skirmia: fencing.

skuvinagium, skyvinagium: the revenue of a scabinus; some due at Calais harbour.

slippa: a stirrup.

smakka: a smack, a small ship.

smeltus, smyltus: a smelt (osmerus eperlanus).

snacca, snecca: a ship (esnecca).

soca: the jurisdiction of a lord; the liberty of tenants excused from customary impositions.

socagium: socage; plough service, a tenure inferior to tenure by knight-service.

socca. See soca.

socenagium. See socagium.

socha. See soca.

sochemannus. See socmannus.

sochemanria: tenure by socage.

socmannus: a socman or socager, a tenant by socage, or tenant in ancient demesne; a sokereve.

socnum. See soca.

soffrancia. See sufferentia.

soinus: essoin.

soka. See soca.

sokerevus: a sokereve, rent collector for the lord of a soke.

sokmannus. See socmannus.

sola: a sole (solea vulgaris).

solagium: a due paid for use of soil.

solanda: a plough land (A.S. sulung.)

solarium: an upper story or room.

solda: a piece of land. See also selda.

soldarius: serving for pay; a soldier.

soldata: pay.

soldum: pay.

soldus: a shilling; a sou.

solecizare: to speak bad grammar.

solemne: the mass.

solicitator: a solicitor.

solidarius: serving for pay; a soldier.

solidata: a shilling's worth; pay.

solidatum: property.

solidatus. See solidata.

solidus: a shilling; a sou.

solidos suos, ad: at his expense; in his pay.

solinum: a meal for one person.

solinus: a measure of land about 160 acres, a plough land (?).

solium: an upper room; a loft.

solinga. See sullinga.

solivagus girus: the sun's orbit. In classical Latin, solivagus is derived from solus, and means wandering alone.

solta: payment.

somarius: a sumpter horse, a pack horse.

sometarius: the officer in the king's household who attended to carriage.

sonare: to snore.

sonium. See essonium.

sopa: a shop (shopa).

sorceria: sorcery, witchcraft.

sornecca: some kind of ship.

sornus: red.

sororius: a brother-in-law; a sister's son.

sors: sort, kind; principal.

sorus: red. See saurus, sourus.

soscallus: some kind of hound used for stag hunting.

sotillares, sotulares: shoes.

sottus: a fool, a sot.

sourellus: a sorel, a buck of three years old.

sourus: a sorel, a four-year-old buck.

spada: a sword.

spado: a gelding.

sparro: a spar, a stake.

sparrus: a hobbyhawk (falco subbuteo).

spartha: an axe.

sparverius: a sparrow hawk (accipiter fringillarius).

spata: a sword.

spatularia: apparels round the neck and wrists of an alb.

specialitas: a bond or deed.

speciarius: a spicer; a druggist.

specieria: spicery.

species: spices.

specietarius. See speciarius.

spectacula: spectacles.

speleum: a cell.

spelta: spelt (triticum spelta).

spengabulum: a duty on mill wheels.

spera: a sphere.

spervarius: a sparrow-hawk.

spiciaria: spicery.

spicurnancia: the office of spigurnel.

spigurnellus: the sealer of the king's writs.

spinacium: a pinnace.

spindula, spinula: a gold pin used with the archiepiscopal pall.

spira bissi: a hatband.

spirasmus: a tag.

spiritualia: the profits which a bishop or other spiritual person recives as an ecclesiastic, not as a lord.

spiritualitas: the clergy.

spirula: a ferrule; a chape; a gimlet.

spolia: a shuttle; a spool.

sponda: a bier; a pier; a partition.

springaldus: a springald, a kind of cannon.

sprottus: a sprat (clupea sprattus).

spurarium aureum: a gold coin called a spur royal, or spurrial, value 15s. in the reign of James I.

spurgellum: a box or trunk.

squarrare: to square.

squelenarius: a keeper of baskets.

squillaria: a scullery.

squillarius: a scullion.

squinancia: quinsy.

squinatus: a sequin or zechin, a Venetian gold coin.

squirellum: a squirrel.

stabellum: a stool.

stabilamentum, stabilia, stabilitio: a buckstall, or deerhay, a stand for shooting deer.

stablia: a stall.

stabula: a stable.

stabularius: an ostler.

stabulatum. See stabilamentum.

stabulum: a stable.

staca: a stake; a measure of corn.

stachia: a stage for catching fish.

stacnaria. See stannaria.

stadium: a furlong; a floor, a story.

stafa: a stirrup.

staffeta. See stoffeta.

stagga: a small quantity of hay or straw.

staggus: a swan, half grown (?).

stagia: a stage; a story of a house.

stagiarius: a canon in residence.

stagium: a story of a house.

stagmen: tin.

stagnaria: a tin mine.

stagnator: a tin miner.

stagnum: a pond; tin.

staka. See staca.

stalaria: a fixed engine for catching fish.

stalinga: same as stalaria (?).

stalla: a stall.

stallagium: stallage, the right of erecting a stall and payment for it.

stallangiarius, stallangiator: a seller of goods at a stall.

stallare: to put off; to give respite.

stallarius: a groom; master of the horse; a stallkeeper in a market.

stallatio: installation.

stallum: a stall.

stalo: a stallion.

stamen, stagmen: tin.

stamen: linsey woolsey cloth. O.E. stamine.

stamina, staminea, stamineum: the same; a garment made of such cloth.

stancilla: stirrups (?).

stancum: a pond, a tank.

standardum: a banner; legal weight and measure.

stangneus, stanneus: of tin.

stannaria: a tin mine.

stannarius: a pewterer; a tinman.

stannator: a tin miner.

stannatus: dyed.

stannum: tin.

stanso: a stanchion (?).

stantiva fenestra: a window reaching to the floor (?).

stapellum: a staple, a bolt.

stapha: a stirrup.

stapula, stapulum: a market or staple.

stara: 8 bushels, or 2 gallons.

starrum: a Jew's deed or bond.

stationarius: a canon in residence.

statutum: a statute.

stauramentum: the stock of a farm.

staurus: stock; store.

stella: a kiddle, a weir for fishing; a rowell, a trendle, a hoop with candles thereon.

stellata camera: the Star Chamber.

sterilensium solidi: shillings sterling.

sterlingus: sterling; an English penny; money.

stermannus: a steersman.

sternium: a bedstead.

steynare: to stain.

stibiare: to starch.

stica: a brass Saxon coin, worth half a farthing; a stick of eels, i.e., 25.

stiga: a pricket for a candle.

stika. See stica.

stillatorium: a distillery.

stina: the handle of a plough.

stinarius: a ploughman.

stingus: a shrimp.

stipa: a metal bar, as on a belt.

stipes: a tally.

stipula: stubble.

stiremannus: a steersman.

stivale, stivallum, stivella: a boot.

stochia. See stachia.

stockarius: a stockfishmonger.

stoffare: to stuff.

stoffeta: stubble.

stoffura: equipment; provisions; material; stuff.

stola: a stole.

stolium: a fleet or army.

stonda: staddles.

stophare: to store; to stuff.

stoppa: tow; a stoup.

storea: straw.

storium. See stolium.

stotarius: a keeper of horses or oxen.

stottus: a horse or an ox.

stowagium: stowage.

straciatus: striped.

stracus: a strake; a tire.

strada: a stripe.

stragulare: to strangle; to embroider of divers colours.

stragulati fratres: Carmelite Friars, whose clothing was parti-coloured when in Palestine.

stragulator: an embroiderer.

stragulus: variegated.

straiatus: strayed.

stramere: to strew.

straminare: to strew with straw.

stramura: straw for the floor.

strandagium: strandage, payment for leave to beach a boat.

stranglinum: squirrel fur.

strangulum: ray, a striped cloth.

stranlingum: squirrel fur.

strata: a street, a high road.

stratilectilia: bedding.

strator: a groom.

strenare: to send a New Year's gift.

strepa: a stirrup.

strepare: to strip.

strepitus: destruction; estrepement.

streppum. See strepitus.

striaballum: a cog of a wheel.

striatus: engrailed. See engrallatus.

stricatus: striped.

stricum: a strike, a stick used for levelling corn in the measure; the eighth of a quarter.

strigil: a currycomb.

strikum. See stricum.

stroda: sands.

strofa: a stirrup.

strublus: a staff; a goad.

structus: a suit (of clothes).

stuba: a stove; a stew.

stubula: stubble.

studium: a university; a study (room).

studium generale: a university.

stufa, stuffa: a stove; a stew; a hot bath.

stuffare: to stuff; to give a hot bath to.

stuffura. See stoffura.

stupula: stubble.

sturemanus. See stiremannus.

sturgio: a sturgeon (acipenser sturio).

suanimotum: a swainmote, a forest court.

suaria: a horsecloth (sudaria).

suatim: among themselves; by himself. The word occurs in classical Latin, but derived from sus not suus.

subalternus: subordinate.

subarrare: to plough up; to espouse; to give a pledge, or earnest; sometimes to take a pledge.

subboscus: underwood.

subdiaconus: a subdeacon.

subductura: lining or trimming.

subescaetor: an under-escheator.

subfalcum: aftermath (?), or a field after mowing or reaping.

subharrare: to plough up.

subjugalis: a beast of burden.

sublarvare: to act in a mask.

sublegerius: guilty of incest. (A.S. sibleger.)

subligacula: breeches, stockings.

subligar: a garter, in classical Latin a waist band.

submonere: to summon.

submonitio: summons.

submonitor: a summoner.

subnervare: to hamstring; to hough.

subpedium: a treadle.

subplacitare: to cite before a court of law.

subprior: an officer of a convent next in authority to the prior.

subprisia: surprise.

subregulus: a baron, a lord.

subrubeus: reddish.

subsannatio: derision.

subsidium: an aid, a subsidy.

subsisternium: a litter.

subtiliare: to diminish; to act craftily.

subucula: a bodkin. (In classical Latin subucula is a shirt, and subula an awl.)

suburbanus: a countryman, a rustic.

subvasor: an esquire, a tenant of a knight.

succellerarius: an undercellarer.

succentor: assistant to the armarius in a monastery.

succidia: a flitch of bacon.

succidium: sowse, pickle.

succurrum candidum: sugar candy.

succursarius: a courser (horse).

succursus: help.

suchia: a stump.

sucura: sugar.

suera. See sewera.

suetta, suettum: suit.

suffalum. See subfalcum.

sufferentia: a grant; sufferance; a suspension of arms, armistice.

sufflum: a whistle.

suffraganeus: a suffragan or subsidiary bishop, who assists the bishop of a diocese.

suffrago: a pastern.

suffurrare: to trim with fur.

suissimus: very own.

suitor: a follower; a suitor.

suliva. See sulliva.

sullinga, sullingata: a plough-land (A.S. sulung), used as equivalent to hide or carucate.

sulliva: a beam, a sill.

sullo: a furrow.

suma. See summa.

sumelarius: a butler; a scullion.

sumeracius, sumericius equus: a packhorse.

sumetarius. See summetarius.

summa: a load; a soam or seam, 6 or 8 bushels; an abstract.

summa mensa: high table.

summagiare: to carry loads.

summagiatio: carrying loads.

summagium: a horse-load, a soam; obligation to supply pack-horses; toll for horses.

summarius: a pack-horse, a sumpter horse.

summata: a load.

summetarius: a man in charge of pack-horses.

summista: a compiler of a summa or abstract.

summitas: the top of a hill.

summonere: to summon.

summonitio: summons.

summonitor: a summoner.

summus: a soam. See summa.

suparum: a linen sleeve; a shirt.

superaedificium: an upper building.

superaltare: a portable altar; the shelf at the back of an altar.

superannuatus: more than a year old.

superaudire: to overhear.

superculum: a coverlet.

superdemanda: excess of claim.

superdicere: to accuse.

superexceptus: despised.

superfactum: profit.

superfidere: to trust too much.

superfossorium: a drawbridge.

superfrontale: a superfrontal, a cloth hanging above a frontal.

supergabulum: overgavel.

superhidagium: superhidage, the extra rate per acre imposed upon a hide of small extent.

superlabium: the upper lip.

superonerare: to overload.

superpellicium: a surplice.

superplus, superplusagium: a surplus; the amount which a sheriff or other officer has spent beyond his receipts.

superprisia: seizure by surprise.

superseminatus: measled (of pork).

supersisa: sursise, penalty for neglect, esp. for not paying castle-ward at Dover.

supertenere: to hold over; to neglect.

supertunica: a garment worn over a tunic.

supervidere: to survey, to examine.

supervincere: to conquer.

supervisor: a surveyor; an overseer.

supervisus: survey.

supparum. See suparum.

suppeditare: to trample on.

suppositio: a support; a prop; a hypothesis.

supprior. See subprior.

suppriserunt: they surprised.

supprisia: used for superprisia.

supra: before, in a reference in a book. This meaning and the corresponding meaning of infra and inferius were originally used for a roll.

supravisor: an overseer.

sura: a coarse loaf.

surigicus: a surgeon (chirurgicus).

surplusagium. See superplus.

surrejunctio: a surrejoinder.

surrogatus: a surrogate, one appointed in the room of another.

sursa: a spring, a fountain.

sursumreddere: to surrender.

sursumredditio: a surrender.

susanus: worn out.

susceptor: an undertaker.

suspeditare: to trample on.

suspendicula: hangings.

suspendium: hanging.

suua: a soam. See summa.

swagium: aid.

swainmotus, swanemotus: a swainmote, a forest court.

swolinga, swulinga. See sullinga.

sya: a load; a seam. See summa.

synaxis: an assembly, a congregation; church service or office.

syndicus: an advocate; a burgess.

syngraphus: a deed signed by all the parties.

synodale: payment by the clergy to the bishop or archdeacon at a visitation.

synodus: a meeting of ecclesiastical persons.

syra. See schira.

syrografum: a chirograph.

syua. See summa.



tabardarius: a tabarder or tabiter, a scholar at Queen's College, Oxford.

tabardum: a tabard, a short tunic worn by heralds, priests, and others.

tabellarium: a board for the game of tables.

tabellatum: a boarded partition.

tabellio: a notary.

tabellionatus: the office of notary.

taberna: a tavern; a brewery.

tabernaculum: a tabernacle or pyx for reserving the sacrament.

tabernarius: a tavernkeeper.

tabula: a board; the cover of a book.

tabulamentum: a tablement, a projecting course of stone to hold a roof.

tabularium: a chess-board, or board for the game of tables.

tabulatus: boarded.

tabuletta: a tablet.

taburcinum, taburcium: a drum.

tacella: a tassel.

tachiamentum: attachment.

tactare: to confirm.

tailla: brushwood, a copse; a tally.

taillagium. See tallagium.

taillia: a tally.

tailliare. See talliare.

tainus. See thainus.

talare: to cut; to devastate.

talea: a tally.

taleator: a teller.

talentum: sometimes a pound. See marabotinus.

tallagium: tallage, tax.

tallator. See talliator.

tallea, tallia: a tally; a tallage; a stated allowance of provisions, commons; tail (legal).

talliare: to cut; to limit; to tax.

talliator: a teller; a cutter of tallies; a tailor.

talliatum feodum: feetail.

talliatura: talwood; firewood.

talliatus: in tail.

tallium: entail; retail

talmus: an eye (ophthalmus).

tamenetallum. See tenemenetallum.

tanaliter: mortally.

tanator: a tanner.

tancardus: a tankard.

tannare: to tan leather.

tannarius, tannator: a tanner.

tanneria: a tannery.

tannerius: a tanner.

tannum, tanum: oakbark for tanning.

tanquam: in the Universities, "a person of worth and learning, fit company for the fellows of colleges."

tapatium: tapestry work.

tapeta, tapetium: a carpet, in the middle ages used for covering tables, benches, or beds, not the floor.

tapheta: taffety, a thin silk.

tapiceria: tapestry.

tapicerius: a tapestry maker.

tapinagium: concealment.

tapisterium: the tester of a bedstead.

tappa: a tap.

taragium: the foot of or a stand for a piece of plate.

taratantarizare: to boult flour.

tarcha: a targe; a target.

tarenus: a Sicilian gold coin, 20 gr.

targa: a small shield, a target.

targia: a ship of burden; a target.

targus. See targa.

tarida: a ship of burden.

tarifa: a list of prices; customs.

tarkosia: a quiver.

tarta: a tart, pastry.

tartenus pannus: cloth of tars, perhaps China silk crape.

tasca, taschia: a task; a tax.

tassare: to put hay into cocks.

tassellus: a fringe; a tassel; a hood.

tassus, tassum: a rick.

tastare: to try; to taste.

tastum: taste; choice.

taxa: a tax; a task.

taxare: to name; to describe; to heap up; to appraise; to tax.

taxatio: valuation, assessment.

taxator: an assessor; a tax collector.

taxus: a badger.

techa: a chest (theca).

techellatus: pied; spotted.

tector: a thatcher, not as in classical Latin, a plaisterer.

tedinga: a tithing.

tegnio: a thane.

tegnum: apparently used for techne, art, fraud.

tegula: a tile; a slate; a brick.

tegularius, tegulator: a tiler, a bricklayer.

teignus: a thane.

tela: a tile.

telaria: the tiller or stock of a balista, made of wood.

telarius: a weaver.

teldum: a tent.

telligraphia: written evidence.

telonium: toll.

telum: a tile.

temantale: a tax of 2s. on every plough-land. See tenemenetallum.

templarius: a knight of the Temple.

temporalia: temporalities, the revenues, &c., held by a bishop as a baron.

temptatio: trial; proof.

tena: a coif; a cap; the pendants of a mitre.

tenaculum: a hook or clasp.

tenalia: pincers.

tenandria: a vill, a town.

tenatura: a tenancy, a holding.

tencellare: to cover with metal.

tenda: a trace.

tendicula: a long net or tunnel for catching birds, esp. partridges.

tenditor: a man who attends to hawks.

tenella: tongs; pincers.

tenellus: a banqueting-hall.

tenematallum. See tenemenetallum.

tenemenetallum: tenmentale, a tithing; frithburgh, frankpledge.

tenementum: a holding, a tenement.

tenenciarius: a tenant.

tenendria: a vill, a town.

tenens: a tenant.

tenentia: tenancy, tenure.

teniludus: tennis.

tenisia: tennis.

tennus: a thane.

tenor: purport; a copy.

tenorcula: the stock of a crossbow.

tenorculus: a notch, a nock.

tensabilis: defended; prohibited.

tensamentum: a tax.

tensare: to protect, to defend; to exact, to extort.

tensaria, tenseria: tax; tallage; exaction.

tensum: toll.

tenta: a tent for a wound.

tentum: a tent.

tenuale: a barbican.

tenura: tenure; a tenant's service.

teoloneum: toll.

terbichetum: a tumbrel, a cucking-stool. See trebuchettum.

tercelettum: a young tiercel.

tercellus, tercillus: a tiercel, a male hawk.

tercionarius: a farmer with a third share (?).

tereus: earthen.

terga: a targe, a target.

tergotenus: on the back, endorsed.

terminarius: a termor, one who holds lands for a term.

terminatus: a boundary.

terminus: a term.

termisium. See tremagium.

terragium: land tax; groundwork.

terrare: to fortify with earth; to block up; to cover.

terrarium: a terrier, a landroll.

terrarius: a landholder; a terrier dog.

terratus: banked up.

terricidium: fallen branches.

tersorium: a duster, a towel; a broom.

tesso: a badger (meles taxus).

testa: a head.

testamentalis: devisable by will.

testamentum: a will; testimony.

testator: the maker of a will.

testerium: a tester, a flat canopy over the end of a bed, a tomb, &c.

testicare: to testify.

tethinga: a tithing.

tetrizare: to tether.

texera: the sign of the Chequers.

textus: a copy of the gospels; a register; type.

teysa, teysia: a fathom.

thainus: a thane.

thalamus: a chamber, a room, as compared with aula.

thalassiarcha: an admiral.

thanagium: land belonging to the king of which the goveror was a thane.

thaxa: a tax; a task.

thaynus: a thane.

thedinga: a tithing.

theloneum, thelonium: toll.

thelonmannus: a toll-collector.

themicium: a hedgerow.

themmagium: a duty paid by inferior tenants to be free from the lord's jurisdiction.

themum: theam, the right of having and judging one's bondmen and their issue, or of following them to other lord's lands; vouching to warranty, part of the legal process for recovering stolen propery among the Anglo-Saxons.

thenecium: a hedgerow.

theodum: error for feodum (?).

theoloneum, theolonium: toll.

Theophania: the Epiphany.

thesare: to worry.

thesauraria, thesaurarium: a treasury.

thesaurarius: a treasurer.

thesauria: a treasury.

thesaurizarius: a treasurer.

thesaurum: a treasury.

thethinga: a tithing.

thimagium. See themmagium.

thingus: a thane.

thollia: thowlpins.

tholneum, tholonium: toll.

tholta: extortion.

Thomipeta: a Canterbury pilgrim.

thorale. See torale.

thorallia: a mattress.

thorallum. See torale.

thrava, thravus. See trava.

threngus. See drengus.

thrimsa: a drachm; an Anglo-Saxon coin worth three pence.

thumelum: a thumb.

thurem dexteram: some part of the body (error for sura, shin (?)).

thuribulum: a censer.

thymallus: a smelt (salmo eperlanus); a grayling (salmo thymallus).

tia: an aunt on the mother's side.

tibialia: stockings.

tibisare: to address in the singular.

ticendulum: a wick of a lamp.

tilerium: a trigger (?); a tiller (?).

tillagium: tillage.

timbrellus: a small assembly (Skene, De verborum significatione). See tumbrellum.

timbria: a timber of fur, a bundle of 40.

timorare: to frighten.

timoratus: God-fearing.

tina: a cask, a tun, a tub.

tinata: a cask full.

tinctor: an oxherd, perhaps an error for tractor.

tinellus: a cowlstaff.

tinettum: brushwood for repairing hedges.

tinneum: tin.

tiparium. See typarium.

tipetum: a tippet, a scarf, generally black, and furred.

tiplare: to tipple.

tippulator: a tippler.

tipularia domus: an alehouse.

tipus: pride.

tira: a tier, used of the lines of skins in a fur cloak.

tiriaca: treacle (theriaca).

tiro: a young man intending to become a knight; a young knight, a champion.

tirocinare: to be a tiro; to serve in war.

tirocinium: knighthood.

tissutum: tissue.

tithinga: a tithing.

titulare: to make a heading or title.

titulus: a title.

toacula, toale, toalle: a towel.

todda: a tod of wool, 28 lbs.; a certain quantity of grass.

toftmannus: the holder of a toft.

tofta, toftum: a toft; a place where a house formerly stood.

togella: a towel.

tolcestrum: tolsester, payment to the lord of the manor for liberty to brew and sell ale.

tolia: toll.

tollagium: forcible exaction of illegal toll.

tolletum: toll.

tollum: toll.

tolnetum: toll.

tonetum de pixide: toll pixy, a customary payment by artisans and dealers in Gower to the lord.

tolonarius: a tollkeeper.

tolonium: toll.

tolta: wrong, extortion.

tolta placiti: a writ removing a cause in a Court Baron into the County Court; the removal of a cause from temporal jurisdiction.

tolumen: a tumbrel.

tonare: to intone.

tonellarius: a cooper.

tonellum, tonellus: a tun, a vat; a prison on Cornhill.

tonna: a tun of wine.

tonnagium: tonnage.

tonsor: a shearman.

topare: to top trees.

topettum: a knob; a knop.

tophta. See tofta.

torale: bedding; a mound; a kiln.

torallum: a mound.

torcare: to clean.

torcha: cob, straw and mud used for roofing.

torchea, torchetus, torchia: a torch.

torchiare: to plaister.

torchiator: a plasterer, a dauber.

torcia: a torch.

tormentum: a catapult; a cannon; a fowling piece.

tormentura: torture.

tornare: to turn.

tornator: a turner.

tornatilis pons: a swingbridge.

torneamentum: a tournament.

torneare: to tilt at a tournament.

torneator: a tilter or jouster; one who attends a tournament.

tornus. See turnum.

torta: extortion; a cake.

tortellae: tourteaux (heraldic).

tortica, torticia: a torch; a winch, a windlass.

tortua: a turtle (chelone mydas or imbricata).

tortum: wrong; injustice.

totsectus. See cotsethus.

tottum: rent; toll; a day's work for rent.

toualus: a towel.

towagium: toll paid for towing.

traba: a thrave. See trava.

trabaria: a small boat, a "dugout."

trabeatio: the Incarnation, from trabea, a robe, not trabs, a beam.

trabeatura: beams.

trabes: a thrave, 12 or 24 sheaves.

tracea: search; pursuit; a trail.

traceare: to track.

traco: a cavern.

tracta: a horse's trace.

tractagium: towing, hauling.

tractilis pons: a drawbridge.

tractula, tractulus: a little tract or treatise.

tractum, tractus: a horse's trace; a haul; a drag-net.

tractus: struck out.

trada: a haven.

traditio: treason.

traga, traha: a sledge; a dray.

trahicium: a trace.

trainellum: a shoehorn.

trama: a path (trames).

tramaricia: a boundary; a landmark.

tramellum: a trammel, a net used for catching birds.

tramerium: a travers, the shed in a smithy where horses are shod.

tramesio. See tremesium.

tranetarius: a tranter, a carrier.

transeptum: a transept.

transeuntes: passant (heraldic).

transfretare: to cross a strait.

transgressio: trespass.

transitus: noon; death; a judge's iter.

transnavare: to cross the sea.

transvadare: to wade across.

trappa: a trap; a trapdoor.

trassa: a dungeon; a fetter.

trassans canis: a sleuth-hound.

trassare: to follow.

trava: a thrave of corn, 24 or 12 sheaves.

travatura: beams.

traversia: a traverse.

traversum: a ferry.

traxus: a trace.

treacha: treacle.

trebuchettum: a catapult; a trebuchet, for casting stones; a cucking stool.

trebuculus: a catapult.

trefa: meat refused by Jews.

trega: a truce.

treingum: a riding.

tremagium: the season for sowing summer corn; spring; spring corn.

tremellum: a granary.

tremesium: corn cut after three months' growth.

tremiscum. See tremagium.

tremulum: a granary.

trencatum: a ditch; a trench.

trenchea, trencheia: the right of cutting wood; a trench.

trencheator: a carver.

trenchura: a slice.

trenga: a dray; a sledge.

trentale: an office of 30 masses said for the dead.

treparium: a trivet.

trepha. See trefa.

tresancia: a passage; a cloister; part of the cloister reserved for reading.

trescentia: rent or tax from land.

tresentia. See tresancia.

tressorium: a tress of hair; also some article of dress.

trestella, trestellus. a trestle.

trestornare: to turn aside.

trethinga. See tridingum.

treuga, treuia: a truce; tribute.

trialitas: a bull of "trialyte," allowing a clerk to hold three benefices.

triallum: trial.

trialogus: a conversation between three persons; the title of a book by John Wycliffe.

triare: to try; to select.

triatio: trial.

triator: a trier; a witness.

tribrica: braces.

tribuculus: a catapult; a trebuchet.

tribulagium: tribulage, a custom payable to the Crown on tin in Cornwall.

tricare: to hinder; to complain.

tricatura: twisted work (used of chain armour).

tricennale, tricennare: a trental.

tricesima: a trental, "month's mind."

triculator: a treasurer.

tridens: a harrow.

tridingum, tridlingum: a trithing, or riding, the third part of a shire.

triforiatus: having a triforium.

triforium: a thoroughfare; a gallery or arcade over the arches of the nave of a church.

trigeldum: a triple fine.

trigintale: a trental, a month's mind.

trillabus: a birdbolt.

trimagium. See tremagium.

trimestrium: a quarter of a year, three months.

trinoda necessitas: the threefold tax, for repairing bridges, maintaining castles, and repelling invasions.

triparium: a three-legged stool; a trivet.

triplarius: triple.

tripodium: a length of three feet.

triroda: three rods or perches.

trisancia. See tresancia.

trisilis: a three-legged stool.

trista: a place where hounds are posted during a deer drive; the service of placing or holding them there. See Manwood, Part I., p. 86.

tristega, tristegum: a house of three stories; an engine used in sieges, consisting of a tower in three stories.

tristellum: a trestle.

tristra. See trista.

tritennale: a trental.

trithinga: a riding, a third of a county.

triturare: to thresh.

Trium Regum dies: Twelth day.

triumvir: a constable of three hundreds.

trivium: the study of grammar, logic, and rhetoric.

trochus: a cluster, a band, esp. of precious stones.

trocus: a top.

trogga: a trough; a measure of corn (Welsh).

trogulus: a cowl.

troillium: an oil or wine press.

trona, tronum: the Tron, a beam for weighing.

tronagium: toll of weighing wool and other goods.

tronare: to weigh at the Tron.

tronator: the officer who weighs wool.

troparium, troperium: a book containing tropi, verses sung at certain festivals before the Introit.

trua: a sow.

trubechettum. See trebuchettum.

trubla: a sieve.

trublagium. See tribulagium.

trublechettum. See trebuchettum.

trubuculus: a catapult.

trubula: a sieve.

trufare: to deceive.

trufatorius: trifling.

truffa: trifles.

truga: a measure of corn.

truia: a sow.

truncagium: a payment to Bamborough Castle by the townships near.

trunculum: a bench.

truncus: a money-box; the pillory; a candle end.

trunso: a truncheon.

trusellum: a bale.

trussa: a truss.

trussare: to truss.

trussellum: a bale.

trussula, trussum: a truss.

trutannicus: worthless, false.

trutannus, trutanus: truant, vagrant.

trutta, trutus: a trout (salmo fario and salmo trutta).

tryinkus: a net used in the Thames.

tuallium, tuellium: a towel.

tuare, tuisare: to address in the singular. (Fr. tutoyer.)

tuitorius: seeking protection.

tumberalis pena: the punishment of the tumbrel.

tumberellus: some military engine.

tumbrellum: a tumbrel, a cucking stool.

tumpilloralis pena: the pillory.

tunellum: a tun or ton.

tunicella, tuniculus: a short tunic.

tunnagium: tonnage.

turba: turf.

turbagium: the right of digging turf.

turbare: to turf.

turbaria: the right of digging turf; a place where turf is dug.

turbarius: kerne.

turbido: a tempest.

turbo: a turbot (Rhombus maximus).

turcasia: a quiver.

turcoplerius, turcopoliarius: a Turcopolier, an officer in the Order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, originally the commander of the Turcopoli, light cavalry.

turella, turellus: a turret.

turetti: tirrets.

turgiolum: a boss.

turkesius: Turkish; a turquoise.

turnarius: a turner.

turnatus pons: a swingbridge.

turneamentum: a tournament.

turneare: to joust, to hold a tournament.

turneicius pons: a swingbridge.

turniamentum: a tournament.

turniare: to joust.

turnum, turnus: a turn; the king's leet through a county; a winch, as on a crossbow.

turqueizare: to favour the Turk.

turratus: having towers.

turrella. See turrellus.

turrellare: to build turrets.

turrellus: a turret, a tourel, a small tower.

turtarius: a baker of tourte, i.e., coarse brown bread.

turtra: trout (salmo fario).

turtus: tourte bread.

tussimulus: a door knocker.

tutibarum: a tumbrel.

twigeldum: a double fine.

tymbrium. See timbria.

tyna: a tub; part of Gloucester town.

typarium: a seal bearing the image of its owner.

tyro. See tiro.


a hull.

uliare: to remedy a default.

uligo: a marsh.

ulmetum: an elm grove.

ulna: an ell.

ulnagium: alnage, duty on cloth.

ulnator, ulniger: an alnager, examiner of cloth and collector of alnage.

ulnus: for ulmus.

ulphus: hassock, coarse grass.

ultragium: outrage.

umbra: an umbrer or umber, part of a bacinett, which protected the face; a grayling (salmo thymallus); precincts, outskirts.

umbraculum. See umbra.

umbraria, umbreria: some office in Bordeaux, perhaps prefect of the umbra or suburb.

umpirator: an umpire.

unare: to bring together, to collect.

uncia: an ounce; an inch; a measure of land, perhaps 12 modii.

uncialiter: in capital letters.

unciata. See uncia.

uncina sagitta: "a swalowe tayle or a brode arrowe," i.e., barbed.

unire: to unite.

unitio: union.

uplanda: upland.

ura: ore.

urigenator: a furbisher (eruginator).

urla: a border; an orle.

ursarius: a bearward; a bear-dog.

usagium: usage.

usia: being.

ustilamentum: a loom.

usuagium: usage.

utensilium: a loom.

uterennium: a space of two years.

uthesium: hue and cry.

uthlega, &c. See utlaga, &c.

uthundredum: the outlying parts of a hundred.

utinatio: regret.

utlaga: an outlaw.

utlagare: to outlaw.

utlagaria, utlagatio: outlawry.

utlagius: an outlaw.

utterare: to distribute, to utter.

uxorare: to give in marriage.

uxoratus: married.

uxorium: a fine for not marrying.


vacant; void.

vacare: to be void.

vacaria: waste ground.

vacatura: a church benefice not yet vacant; provision thereto; the next avoidance of a benefice.

vaccaria: a cow-house or pasture.

vaccarius: a cowherd.

vaccasterium: a cowhouse; a dairy farm.

vacuare: to frustrate.

vadiare: to pledge oneself; to give security for; to wage.

vadiare legem: to wage his law.

vadimonizare: to pawn.

vadium: surety; wage; custom.

vafra: a wafer.

vagium: security.

valatorium, valatrum: a churn.

valectus. See valettus.

valentia: value.

valesium: a travelling bag.

valettus: a groom; a yeoman; a journeyman.

valibilis: valuable.

valisona anguillarum: eelbucks (?).

valitor: an assistant; an ally.

vallare: to wall up.

valor: strength; courage; value.

valvassor: a vassal. See vavassor.

vana: a weathercock.

vanga: a shovel; a spade.

vannatarius: a winnower.

vannus: a vane; a winnowing-fan.

vantarius: a footman who runs before his master.

vapulatio: beating, cleaning; perhaps also "whipping," binding with string.

varancia: madder.

varectare. See warectare.

varium: vair, an expensive fur, perhaps ermine.

varrare: to value.

vasa: a ship.

vasarius: a keeper of crockery.

vascella: some sort of ship, perhaps an error for nascella.

vaslettus. See valettus.

vassalagium: the condition of a vassal.

vassallus: a vassal, a feudal tenant.

vasseleria: a vassal's tenure.

vassella: plate.

vastare: to waste.

vastellarium: a bakehouse where wastel bread was baked.

vastellum: a shade; an arbour. See wastellus.

vastina: waste land.

vastum: waste.

vatila: a scoop.

vavassaria. See vavassoria.

vavassor: a vassal, next in dignity to a baron; a free tenant of a tenant in chief.

vavassoria: land held by a vavassor.

vealtrarius, veautrarius. See veltrarius.

vehagium: payment for carriage.

vehia: a load.

vehitura: carriage.

veicium: a conduit or pipe (?).

veirium: error for veicium.

velare: to sail.

velle: will (subst.).

veltraria: the office of slipper when coursing.

veltrarius: a lyme-hound; a man who leads hounds, a slipper.

veltrea: a leash.

veluellum, veluettum, velutum: velvet.

venaria: beasts and birds of chase.

venatio: venison; the right of hunting.

venda: payment to lord for licence to sell; toll of goods for sale.

venea: a vineyard.

venella: a lane.

Veneris dies: Friday.

venia curta: a slight bow.

venia longa: a low bow.

ventare, ventilare: to winnow; to air.

venticius: wind (adj.).

ventilogium: a vane.

ventosa: a cupping glass.

ventosare: to bleed by cupping.

ventriceum, ventriticum molendinum: a windmill.

veragium: verage, the right of the Marshal of England to all pied cattle taken in war.

verbale: a dictionary.

vereda: a carter.

veredarius: a courier; a thill horse.

veredictum: a verdict.

veredis: a ferret.

veredum: a thill, the draught tree of a cart.

veredus: a thill horse.

vergenta: a measure used for spices.

verina: a pane of glass.

vermiculus: vermilion.

vermina: vermin.

vernacio: varnishing.

vernare: to varnish.

vernellum: varnish.

vero: a minnow (leuciscus phoxinus).

veronica: a vernacle.

verra: war.

verrina: a pane of glass.

versatilis pons: a swingbridge.

versator: a turnspit.

versor: a turner.

versutius: "fersouthe."

vertagus: a tumbler dog.

vertebra: a hinge.

vertebrum: a reel.

vertevella, vertinella: a hook; a hinge; shears.

vertitor: a turner.

verugirus: a turnspit.

veruversorium: a roasting jack.

vervella: vervels, gold or silver rings on a hawk's jesses.

vesca: vetch.

vesperae: vespers, between the 9th hour of the day and night.

vesperus: evensong.

vespilio: a nocturnal robber.

vesselamenta: plate.

vesta: crop.

vestiarium: a wardrobe; a vestry.

vestibulum: a vestry.

vestigabilis canis: a sleuth hound.

vestiplicium: a clothes press.

vestire: to invest.

vestitura. See vestura.

vestitus: a fee or benefice with which the holder is invested.

vestura: crop; possession.

vettrarius. See veltrarius.

vetuxuale: toll (for vectigal ?).

veua, veuta: a view.

veutrarius. See veltrarius.

vexillator: a standardbearer.

vexillifer: a standardbearer.

vexus: a pack, a bundle.

viagium: a voyage.

vians: a traveller.

vibrella: a cannon.

vibrellator: a gunner.

vicaria: a vicarage.

vicariatus: the office of a vicar.

vicarius: a vicar.

vicecancellarius: a vice-chancellor.

vicecomes: a viscount; a sheriff.

vicecomitilia: vicontiels, rents farmed by a sheriff.

vicedominus: a vidame, a bishop's deputy in temporal matters.

vicenarius. See vintarius.

viceplebanus: a deputy to a parish priest.

vicinetum, vicinia: neighbourhood; venue.

victinella: a bolt (from vectis).

victualarius: a victualler.

vicus: a street.

viduatus: widowed.

vidula: a fiddle.

vidulator: a fiddler.

viella: a viol.

viellator: a player on the viol.

vigeria: the jurisdiction of a vicar.

vigerius: a vicar.

vigilarius: a monk who woke the others.

vigilia: the eve of or day before a feast.

vigiliae: matins or vigils.

villa: a vill or village; a town.

villanagium: the tenure of a villein, villenage.

villanus: a villein, a bondman.

villare: a list of villae.

villata: a township, a village.

villaticus: a peasant.

villatus pannus: frieze.

villenagium: the tenure of a villein.

villicanus, villicus: a steward, a reeve.

villificare: to build; to wall in.

villosa: velvet.

vilnetum. See vicinetum.

vina: a fin.

vinagium: rent paid in wine.

vinaria: a vintry.

vinegrum: vinegar.

vinetria: a vintry.

vinitarius: a vintner; the custodian of the wine in a convent.

vinitor: a vintner.

vinna: a drag-net.

vintarius, vintenarius: a vintner; a commander of twenty soldiers.

virbius: twice married.

virga: a yard; a wand; the verge, the compass of the king's court.

virgarium: an osier bed.

virgarius. See virgatarius.

virgastrum: an osier bed.

virgata: a yard-land, or verge, a quarter of a hide, varying from 12 to 40 acres; the verge.

virgatorius: originally a holder of a virgate or yard-land, but used for all small holders of land.

virgator: a verger.

virgeus: striped, brindled.

virgiferens: a verger.

virgultarius: an orcharder.

viridariae dies: days for surveying the viridaria in a forest.

viridarium: a clearing in a forest; a garden.

viridarius: a verderer, a forest officer; a hayward.

viride: vert or greenhue, trees, &c. in a forest; the right to cut green wood.

viridere: to scour a river or ditch.

viridis: sometimes used for varium, vair.

viridium, virificum: varnish.

viro: a boatman.

visitor: a vejour.

visnetum. See vicinetum.

visor: an inspector.

vispilio: a nocturnal robber.

vista: an interview.

visus: a view.

vitellarius: a victualler.

vitellium: caudle.

vitillarius: a victualler.

vitreare, vitriare: to glaze.

vitriatio: glazing.

vitriatus: glazed.

vitulamen: a graft.

vitulare: to calve.

vitulinium: vellum.

vivarium: a park; a fishpond. O.E. vever.

viverra: a ferret.

vobisare: to address in the plural.

vola: the hollow of the hand; a handful.

volatus: falconry.

volsura: vaulting.

volta: a vault.

volticium: an arch.

volupare: to roll up (volutare).

volutus: a vault.

vosare: to address in the plural.

vota: a drain; a vault.

vouta: a vault.

vulgariter: in English.

vulpericia canis: a foxhound.


a cowhouse or cow-pasture.

waccarius: a cowherd.

wacta: watch.

wactare: to watch.

wadda: woad.

wadium. See vadium.

waerum: a weir.

wafra: wafer bread.

waftor: a pilot.

waga: a wey or weigh; of wool 256 lbs. or 2 sacks; of cheese 168, 256, or 300 lbs.; of barley or malt 6 qrs., temp. Edw. I; of salt 25 qrs.; of tallow 168 lbs.; a waif; whey.

wagesium: ooze, sea-ground.

wagha. See waga.

waia. See waga.

waida: woad.

wainabilis: passable by wagons; tilled.

wainagium: a stock of wagons, team, &c.; wainage; cartage.

wainare: to till; to get a profit out of.

waineria: farm implements (?).

waisda: woad.

waivare: to forsake; to outlaw (a woman).

waiviamentum, waiviaria: a waiver, waiviary; refusal.

waiviare: to waive, to abandon.

waivium: a waif.

waivius: wandering.

walda, waldia: a forest; weald, wold.

walecheria: Welshry.

waliscus: a Welshman; a servant.

walla: a wall.

wallare: to wall; to fortify.

wallia: a wall.

wallum: a wall.

wallura: walling.

wambasarius: a maker of gambesons.

wambasium. See gambeso.

wannagium. See wainagium.

wannus. See vannus.

wantalius, wantarius: a glover.

wapentacium, wapentachium, wapentacum, wapentagium: a wapentake, a division of a county similar to a hundred, used in the north; suit of court and other duties incumbent on the inhabitants.

wara: a measure of land, a gore (?); a weir.

warantia, &c. See warrantia, &c.

warda: a ward of a city; custody; wardship; wardpenny.

warda castri: castleguard.

wardagium: contribution for the custody of a castle, wardpenny.

wardemotus: a wardmote, a court held in London.

warderoba: a wardrobe.

warecta: fallow land.

warectabilis: fallow.

warectare: to plough land intended for wheat in the spring and let it lie fallow.

warectus: fallow.

warengae: the ribs of a ship (Fr. varangue).

warenna: a warren.

warennarius: a warrener.

warentiza: warranty.

waretare. See warectare.

waretta, &c. See warecta, &c.

warfus: a wharf.

wargus: a banished rogue.

warnamentum: a garment.

warnestura. See warnistura.

warnetum: warnoth, a rent at Dover doubled if not paid.

warniso, warnisona: protection; a garrison.

warnistura: garrison; provisions.

warpenna: wardpenny.

warrantia: warranty.

warrantisio: warranty.

warrantizare: to warrant.

warrantizatio: warranty.

warrantum: a warrant.

warrecta, &c. See warecta.

warrenna. See warenna.

warrentiza: a warrant.

wasshum: a shallow arm of the sea; the Wash.

wastellus: wastelbread, the second sort of white bread, next in quality to simnel.

wastum: waste.

watergagium: a watergage, a bank to keep off water; a watergauge, an instrument to measure water; a watercourse.

waterganga: a watercourse; an aqueduct.

watergangius: a trench to carry off water; an aqueduct.

waterscopium. See watergangius.

watillum: a wattle.

watlura: wattling.

waulura: fencing.

wavium, &c. See waivium, &c.

waynabilis. See wainabilis.

waynagium. See wainagium.

wayura: a channel.

wayvium, wavium, &c. See waivium.

wdewardus: a woodward.

wdiarius: a woodman.

wegga. See waga.

weidia: woad.

wela: a bownet to take fish in; a weir pool.

welcomare: to welcome.

welkus: a whelk.

welluetum: velvet.

wendus: a circuit of ground.

wera: wergild, the fine paid for killing a man; a weir.

werccum: wreck.

werelada: purgation of homicide by oath.

wergildus: wergild, fine for homicide.

werra: war.

wesda: woad.

wesdarius: a dealer in woad.

wexare: to mend, to repair.

weyfa maris: waif of the sea.

wharfa: a wharf.

wharfagium: wharfage.

whassum. See wasshum.

whitauwarius: a white-tawer, a tanner of white leather; a collar maker.

wica: a country house, a farm.

wicarius, wikarius: the keeper of a wica.

wikettum: a wicket.

windare: to hoist.

windarium: hoisting.

winpla: a wimple.

wiscare: to mend, to repair.

wisda: woad.

wista: a measure of land, a quarter of a hide.

wita: a fine; an amerciament.

withernamium: carrying off a distress, so that the sheriff cannot deliver it when replevied.

wittescalchus: an officer who collects fines imposed by judges, a bailiff.

wixare: to mend, to repair.

wodegeldum: a tax paid on woods.

wodewardia: the office of woodward.

wodewardus: a woodward, a forest officer.

wodiarius: a woodman.

wreccatum: wrecked.

wreccum: wreck.

wrectum: wreck.

wrekum: wreck.

wudewardus: a woodward.

wullire: to boil (bullire).

wulperettus, wulpericius canis: a foxhound.

wyka. See wica.

wykettum: a wicket.

wympla: a wimple.

wyndare: to hoist.

wyta. See wita.


a present. See exennium.

xenodochium: an inn; a hospital; a convent.

xylopola: a dealer in wood.

xysticus: a champion; a wrestler.


a yard.

yconia: an image.

yconomus: a guardian.

yda. See hida.

ydolotrare: to worship images.

ydor: a water jar.

yems: used for hiems, winter.

yepso: "a little ipson," in Somerset, is a double handful, from A.S. gespeon, clasped.

ympnare: a hymnal.

yvernagium. See hibernagium.


gravel, sand.

zabulus: the devil (diabolus).

zeta: a dining room; a chamber.

zibellus: sable fur.

zigarus: a gipsy.

zinziber, sinzuber: ginger.

zourus: a sore, a four-year old buck.

zucara: sugar.

zucheus, zuschia: the dead trunk of a tree; a stub.

zygostata: a clerk of a market.