BOTY 1613 Homepage


Important Announcements Here:

Exam III will be on Friday, 30 June. It will cover the whole course.


BOTY 1613, Plant Biology, Summer, 2000, MTWRF 9:00-10:20

Instructor: Dr. Fred Spiegel

Office: SCEN 711, Phone: 575-7393, email: fspiegel@comp.uark.edu

Office hours: One hour before class

Textbook: Moore, Clark, and Vodopich, Botany, 2nd Edition

Laboratory: Vodopich and Moore, Botany Laboratory Manual

Exam and Grading Policy: There will be three 100 point exams in lecture. All will be comprehensive. They will include objective and written questions. Grades will be based on the percent of the total points you earn.

Grading scale: > 85% - A, 75-84% - B, 65-74% - C, 60-64% - D, <60% - F.

I reserve the privilege of lowering these cutoff points, but I will not raise them.

Tentative Schedule

Date

Topic

Recommended Reading

22 May

Introduction, Field Trip

Chapters 12-17

23 May

Whole Plant Structure and Development

Chapters 12-17

24 May

Whole Plant Structure and Development

Chapters 12-17

25 May

Cells and Tissues

Chapters 3, 13

26 May

Cells and Tissues

Chapters 3, 13

29 May

Memorial Day Holiday, No Class

30 May

Cell Structure and Function

Chapters 2, 3, 4

31 May

Respiration

Chapters 5, 6

1 June

Photosynthesis

Chapter 7

2 June

Exam I

5 June

Plant Growth and Development

Chapters 12-17

6 June

Plant Reproduction and Genetics

Chapters 8-11

7 June

Plant Reproduction and Genetics

Chapters 8-11

8 June

Plant Reproduction and Genetics

Chapters 8-11

9 June

Plant Reproductions and Genetics

Chapters 8-11

12 June

Plant Nutrition, Transport, and Response

Chapters 18-21

13 June

Plant Nutrition, Transport, and Response

Chapters 18-21

14 June

Plant Nutrition, Transport, and Response

Chapters 18-21

15 June

Plant Nutrition, Transport, and Response

Chapters 18-21

16 June

Exam II

19 June

Plant Nutrition, Transport, and Response

Chapters 18-21

20 June

Plant Nutrition, Transport, and Response

Chapters 18-21

21 June

Evolution and Phylogeny

Chapters 22-24

22 June

Evolution and Phylogeny

Chapters 22-24

23 June

Evolution and Phylogeny

Chapters 22-24

26 June

Botanical Diversity

Chapters 27-31

27 June

Botanical Diversity

Chapters 27-31

28 June

Ecology and Economic Botany

Chapters 32-Epilogue

29 June

Ecology and Economic Botany

Chapters 32-Epilogue

30 June

Final Exam


Some sample questions for Exam I. Correct responses in RED.

Any, all, or none of the responses to the following questions or statements may be correct. Circle the letter of each correct response.

1. Major vegetative organs of a flowering plant include: A. xylem and phloem. B. leaves. C. chloroplasts. D. petals. E. cell walls.

2. ATP will be generated by: A. mitochondria. B. the electron transport system. C. a cell. D. respiration. E. the Krebs Cycle.

3. Where will you find chloroplasts generating oxygen? A. In roots. B. In xylem and phloem. C. In leaves. D. In the mesophyll. E. In the nucleus of a leaf cell.

4. What must a typical cell make for itself? A. glucose. B. ATP. C. most of its proteins. D. leaves. E. shoots.

5. What organelles are found in most living cells in a plant? A. mitochondria. B. leaves. C. vacuoles. D. nuclei. E. green chloroplasts.

6. What sort of assay can you use to tell if a whole plant is photosynthesizing more than it is respiring or vice versa? A. You can monitor the starch content of the leaves. B. You can measure changes in the content of nitrogen in the air around a plant grown in a sealed container. C. You can grow the plant under different colors of light. D. You can measure changes in the content of oxygen in the air around a plant grown in a sealed container. E. You can measure changes in the content of carbon dioxide in the air around a plant grown in a sealed container.

7. If you cut off the supply of light to a leaf, its palisade mesophyll cells will stop: A. producing O2. B. producing starch. C. producing CO2. D. using O2. E. photosynthesizing.

8. Which major type of tissue includes most of the photosynthetic cells in a typical flowering plant? A. vascular tissue. B. ground tissue. C. meristematic tissue. D. epidermal tissue. E. leaves.

9. What is an organ where all the living cells have plastids but not chloroplasts in a typical rose plant? A. A leaf. B. A stem. C. A root. D. The mesophyll. E. The epidermis.

10. The Calvin Cycle: A. is part of the light reactions of photosynthesis. B. is part of respiration. C. occurs in mitochondria. D. takes place in the thylakoids of the chloroplast. E. produces a little ATP.

11. The Krebs Cycle: A. is part of the light reactions of photosynthesis. B. is part of respiration. C. occurs in mitochondria. D. takes place in the thylakoids of the chloroplast. E. produces a little ATP.

12. Where would you find respiration taking place in a plant? A. In leaves. B. In cells. C. In roots. D. In ground tissue. E. In flowers.

Short answer.

1. What are the major sources of ATP in a plant cell which has plenty of oxygen?

2. Diagram a flowering plant showing and labeling all the major vegetative organs. Beside each label indicate whether you would find cells in that organ: generating oxygen, generating carbon dioxide, converting ATP to ADP+Pi, fixing carbon dioxide, converting ADP+Pi to ATP.

3. Using the same diagram, indicate where you will find autotrophic cells and heterotrophic cells.

4. How are the Calvin Cycle and Krebs Cycle more or less the opposite of each other? (This is harder than I will ask on the exam, but if you can answer it, you are well along to understanding photosynthesis and respiration.)

5. Where does starch come from in the chloroplast of a photosynthetic leaf cell?

6. In plain English (no fancy terms), explain: a. the role of respiration in a cell (you can use the term ATP), and b. the role of photosynthesis in a cell.


Some Sample Questions for Exam II

Any, all, or none of the responses to the following questions or statements may be correct. Circle the letter of each correct response.

1. When a plant reproduces asexually, the offspring plants have: A. all the same genes the parent plant had. B. half of the genes the parent plant had. C. the same genotype the parent plant had. D. a different genotype from the parent plant. E. a similar phenotype to the parent plant.

2. A gene is: A. a unit of information inherited from a parent. B. something that codes for the structure of a particular protein. C. a stretch of RNA. D. part of a ribosome. E. a stretch of DNA.

3. Which of the following will base pair with a strand of DNA with the sequence: AAATCCGGTTCA? A. a strand of DNA with the sequence CCCGAATTGGAC. B. a strand of DNA with the sequence TTTAGGCCAAGT. C. a strand of RNA with the sequence UUUACCGGAAGU. D. a strand of RNA with the sequence TTTAGGCCAAGT. E. a strand of DNA with the sequence AAATCCGGTTCA.

4. A codon which codes for the amino acid alanine reads GCU. The corresponding anticodon on tRNA would be _____ and the corresponding sequence on the coding strand of the gene would read ____. A. CGA, CGA B. CGU, CGT C. CGA, CGT D. GCU, GCT E. AUC, ATC.

5. The following organs will be part of the embryo of any flowering plant: A. Cotyledons. B. DNA. C. Genes. D. Nuclei. E. Mitochondria.

6. Where would you find tissue in a plant in which most of the cells were expressing genes for proteins that control mitosis? A. in the cortex (ground tissue) of a root. B. in the blade of a leaf. C. in the tip of a root. D. in the tip of a shoot. E. in an axillary bud.

7. In order to produce nucleotides, the building blocks of nucleic acids, a plant needs a source of _____ from the soil. A. carbon dioxide. B. nitrogen. C. phosphorus. D. sulfur. E. water.

8. In order for a shoot of a plant to grow, cells must: A. undergo division. B. change size. C. turn on genes that were turned off. D. turn off genes that were turned on. E. undergo meiosis.

9. Where would you find cells with nuclei undergoing meiosis? A. in a maturing fruit. B. in an apical meristem. C. in a flower. D. in a young ovule. E. in a seed.

10. A lateral root develops from tissue near the center of the root; it then pushes throught the cortex and epidermis of the root. What are some processes that are necessary for this root to develop? A. genes have to be turned on and off. B. a meristem has to develop. C. some cells have to change shape. D. some cells have to divide. E. fertilization has to occur.

11. A plant that is growing in a dark room will bend toward light. This is one example of: A. the action of gibberellins. B. a positive gravitropism. C. a negative phototropism. D. the action of differential cell elongation. E. the action of auxin.

12. Removing a gravity sensor from a plant may affect how well the plant: A. responds to light. B. regulates the direction in which its roots grow. C. regulates the direction in which its shoots grow. D. determines the pigments of its flowers. E. regulates the way in which its cells expand.

 

Short answer

1. If you change one base pair in a gene, it is possible that the protein it codes for will still have the same sequence of amino acids. How can this be true?

2. Two cells in a plant, one in a flower and one in a root tip, have exactly the same genes, but they are making a number of different proteins from each other. How can this be so?

3. What about the structure of DNA told biologists that it was just what one would expect of the genetic material?

4. What role(s) does RNA have in transcription? What role(s) does it have in translation?

5. Draw a diagram of a plant in bloom. Label the somatic (vegetative) organs and the reproductive organs. Place a * next to the label of any organ in which meiosis is occurring.

6. How are the development of a lateral root and a lateral shoot similar? Different?

7. If a plant hormone is artificially added to a plant in excess of what the plant would normally produce, the plant might die. Why is this?

8. How is the availability of water in soil related to a plant's ability to produce seeds? Part of your answer must address the production of ATP.

9. How is mitosis involved in plant growth? The answer must include some aspect of how genes are inherited.


Some Sample Questions for Exam III (Final)

Any, all, or none of the responses to the following questions or statements may be correct. Circle the letter of each correct response.

1. Xylem is a tissue that: A. may be the product of either primary or secondary growth. B. has cells with lignified cell walls. C. contains mostly cells that are dead when functional. D. is made of sieve tube elements. E. forms a system that extends from near root tips to shoot tips.

2. Phloem is a tissue that: A. transports sugars and other organic compounds in water. B. is made of vessel elements and tracheids. C. uses ATP to function. D. is a major site of photosynthesis. E. may be a product of either primary or secondary growth.

3. After meiosis in flowering plants, the cell(s) that contain the haploid products of meiosis: A. differentiate directly into sperm or eggs. B. differentiate in either the pollen sac or the ovule. C. develop into gametophytes. D. develop directly into embryos or endosperm. E. may become pollen grains.

4. Pollination in flowering plants involves: A. the fusion between a sperm and an egg in the embryo sac. B. the transfer of microgametophytes to a stigma. C. the attraction of an animal to a flower (in many species). D. the attachment of a haploid plant to a diploid plant. E. the transfer of the contents of an anther to a sepal.

5. Changes in the genetic makeup of a population over time may involve: A. natural selection. B. the accumulation of new mutations. C. changes in the environment in which the population occurs. D. sexual reproduction. E. random chance.

6. Ginkgo can be shown to be more closely phylogenetically related to tobacco than either is to a moss because they both exclusively share: A. chloroplasts. B. ovules. C. xylem. D. meiosis and mitosis. E. respiration.

7. A characteristic of all seed plants is: A. xylem and phloem. B. pollen. C. fruit. D. sperm and eggs. E. free living gametophytes.

8. What does a pollen grain have in common with a leafy moss plant? A. a diploid chromosome number. B. the ability to develop and produce gametes. C. a haploid chromosome number. D. both germinated from a spore. E. cells that can undergo mitosis.

9. A population differs from a community because: A. it is made up of members of more than one species and a community contains only one. B. all its members are probably capable of interbreeding. C. all its members are living things while the community also includes abiotic components. D. it is made up of one species while a community contains many. E. populations contain abiotic components while communities contain only living things.

10. Community interactions among plants in an ecosystem may include: A. competition for minerals. B. competition for water. C. competition for the energy source for the community. D. plants preying on each other. E. competition for some of the building blocks of DNA.

11. Which of the following cannot occur in an ecosystem? A. Producers will always outnumber consumers. B. Consumers will always outnumber producers. C. Heterotrophs will always outnumber autotrophs. D. Oxygen concentrations will remain high in the absence of photosynthetic organisms. E. An ecosystem will be able to support an infinite number of individuals.

12. How are mosses and maples alike in the ecosystem around here? A. Both are consumers. B. Both are heterotrophs. C. Both take up carbon dioxide during the day and release oxygen. D. Both interact with animals and fungi. E. Both are producers.

Short answer

1. Diagram a growing, blooming flowering plant and label the organs that are involved with pollination. In a brief sentence, tell how each organ functions in pollination.

2. Why do flowers act as sinks (sites of sugar unloading) in phloem transport?

3. How could global warming select for plants in Canada that bloom earlier than they do now? Your answer must include some discussion of genes that are involved in flowering.

4. You genetically engineer a plant to have flower petals that do not die after pollination. The plant is released into the wild. Will it be more or less likely to survive than a normal plant whose petals die back after pollination? Why? Your answer should include some discussion of ATP and resources.

5. If you go into a forest with many sugar maple trees in the late springtime and sample the population of maples, you will find that there are many more individuals present than there would be if you surveyed the same area in late summer. There might be a decline of over 50%. If you go back the next spring the population will be similar to the first spring. If you cut down 25% of the large trees, the population decline by late summer might be about 10%. Explain how this might be so.

6. Describe the components of the community defined by the lawn in front of Old Main.

7. Describe two ways each of the major somatic and reproductive organs of a flowering plant is involved in interactions with consumers. At least one of your examples must be of an interaction that is beneficial to the plant.